Long before our sun became a star, the Milky Way galaxy contained millions of stars.  Mixed in with that collection of stars was gas, dust and rock. Some of this material was swept around the outer edge of the Milky Way. Gravity collected some of this mass into many widely spaced balls, and with time, they became larger and more massive. A cluster of stars was being created. Our sun would be one among many.

( Dates are approximate.)
4,608,000,000 (Years ago.)
4,607,000,000 (Years ago.)
4,606,000,000 Inside the Milky Way, hundreds of new stars were about to shine.
4,605,000,000 Our sun was one of them. Nearby, a star went supernova.
4,604,000,000 The heavy metals and other elements, uranium included,
4,603,000,000 were created at the moment of the supernova's explosion.
4,602,000,000 This material was dispersed into the surrounding space.
4,601,000,000 Some impacted the sun, while other material found its way
4,600,000,000 into orbit around the sun and eventually added to or began
4,599,000,000 the formation of some of the planets. All the stars in the
4,598,000,000 cluster received material from this supernova. When the
4,597,000,000 supernova exploded, the planets that circled it were blown
4,596,000,000 apart. Life is common in the universe and life could be found
4,595,000,000 on these planets. Microbes attached to particles were
4,594,000,000 dispersed into space by the explosion.
4,593,000,000 The theory that simple forms of life travel in ejecta from
4,592,000,000 other worlds is called: lithopanspermia.
4,591,000,000 Panspermia is the theory that
4,590,000,000 radiation pressure from the stars blow microbes about like
4,589,000,000 tiny solar sails. These microbes have the ability to survive in a
4,588,000,000 cold vacuum by going into stasis. They reduce there chemical
4,587,000,000 interactions to zero while maintaining there biological
4,586,000,000 structure well enough to later thaw and multiply when
4,585,000,000 they find themselves in a sustaining environment.
4,584,000,000
4,583,000,000 Two planetoids, less than a thousand mile in diameter, orbit the 
4,582,000,000 sun at about the same distance from the sun as the earth does 
4,581,000,000 today. Comets, meteorites (some left over from the supernova), 
4,580,000,000 and planetoids crash into other planets and planetoids adding 
4,579,000,000 mass. At this time there are dozens of planets and planetoids 
4,578,000,000 circling the sun. Many cross the orbits of others. They crash into 
4,577,000,000 each other, adding mass, and become larger.
4,576,000,000
4,575,000,000
4,574,000,000
4,573,000,000 Positive identification of living extraterrestrial bacteria
4,572,000,000 entering the Earth's upper atmosphere from space came in 2001.
4,571,000,000 Panspermia no longer a theory. Daily, the earth receives more
4,570,000,000 than 600 pounds of biological material from space.
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4,532,000,000
4,531,000,000
4,530,000,000 The sun is only half as bright as it is today. Heat is rapidly lost from
4,529,000,000 the planetoids that orbit the sun in this cold solar system. As the 
4,528,000,000 sun burns, its composition changes, gradually growing brighter and 
4,527,000,000 hotter with age.
4,526,000,000
4,525,000,000
4,524,000,000
4,523,000,000
4,522,000,000
4,521,000,000
4,520,000,000
4,519,000,000
4,518,000,000 The planetoids and planets keep receiving mass from the impact of
4,517,000,000 space debris. Two planetoids have orbits that cross paths.
4,516,000,000 They are half the size of earth.
4,515,000,000 We will call the larger planetoid Earth and the smaller Theia.
4,514,000,000 It is believed that Earth had at least 6 impacts with bodies
4,513,000,000 that had diameters of 300 miles or more. These impacts would 
4,512,000,000 melt the entire surface of Earth, and larger ones could melt the 
4,511,000,000 entire planet.
4,510,000,000
4,509,000,000
4,508,000,000
4,507,000,000 Theia is a small planet about the size of Mars. Theia and Earth
4,506,000,000 orbit the sun with paths that cross. At some point, Theia and
4,505,000,000 Earth will be at the same place at the same time.
4,504,000,000
4,503,000,000 Earth is now about 5000 miles in diameter and Theia is about 4000
4,502,000,000 miles in diameter.
4,501,000,000 Theia smacked into Earth about 4.5 billion years ago tilting
4,500,000,000 the Earth's axis to 23.5 degrees and started the Earth to rotate.
4,499,000,000 Theia combined with Earth to make Earth a larger planet.
4,498,000,000 Some of Earth's surface was ejected into space by the impact
4,497,000,000 and found its way into orbit leading to the creation of the moon.
4,496,000,000 The heat generated from the collision caused Earth
4,495,000,000 to become molten. Some rock was vaporized by this impact, 
4,494,000,000 creating a rock vapor atmosphere that would take at least two 
4,493,000,000 thousand years to condense leaving behind an atmosphere of
4,492,000,000 carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and water vapor (steam).
4,491,000,000 With the Earth molten, heavier elements would gravitate (sink)
4,490,000,000 to the center of the Earth and lighter elements would rise to the
4,489,000,000 surface, water among them. Iron sinks to the center of the Earth
4,488,000,000 along with the radio active elements. Uranium, thorium, samarium
4,487,000,000 and neodymium are found floating on a layer above the
4,486,000,000 iron core, called the D" layer.
4,485,000,000 This D" layer is not homogeneous and there are hot spots.
4,484,000,000 One hot spot is so hot it vaporizes the rock. This rock vapor
4,483,000,000 is surrounded by liquid rock. The pressure builds until the
4,482,000,000 mantle gives and a massive amount of liquid rock spews out.
4,481,000,000
4,480,000,000
4,479,000,000 The radio active elements in the D" layer burn, churn, and react,
4,478,000,000 creating the planet's magnetic field and keeping the Earth's core
4,477,000,000 molten and providing the energy for volcanoes and plate tectonics.
4,476,000,000 On this molten planet water migrates to the surface where
4,475,000,000 it turns to steam. The steam is so thick it blocks out the sun.
4,474,000,000
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4,450,000,000 Earth cools enough to form crust.
4,449,000,000 Rain striking the hot ground would turn to steam.
4,448,000,000 Vary little of this early crust remain today
4,447,000,000 having been recycled back into the earth's mantle.
4,446,000,000
4,445,000,000
4,444,000,000 Earth's atmosphere is mostly water vapor with methane,
4,443,000,000 carbon dioxide, ammonia, and hydrogen.
4,442,000,000
4,441,000,000 Water can be found in places on the earth's surface.
4,440,000,000
4,439,000,000 Comets seed the earth with microorganisms.
4,438,000,000 Cyanobacteria, sulfur bacteria and archaea arrive
4,437,000,000 on earth by way of comets. Sulfur bacteria
4,436,000,000 manufacture carbohydrates (food) from non-living
4,435,000,000(inorganic) raw materials. These so-called chemoautotrophic
4,434,000,000 bacteria do not need sun light for energy. They can be
4,433,000,000 found living in pools of water under the bottom
4,432,000,000 sediments. They take in hydrogen sulfide and carbon
4,431,000,000 dioxide and release as waste products,
4,430,000,000 water, methane and sulfur. These one cell organisms
4,429,000,000 are busy adding water to our oceans. Comets are also
4,428,000,000 bringing in water from space. Meteorites contain about 20%
4,427,000,000 water. Today, when a meteorite enters our atmosphere, only 2 or 3
4,426,000,000 millimeters of the outside is melted. The interior remains frozen.
4,425,000,000
4,424,000,000
4,423,000,000
4,422,000,000
4,421,000,000
4,420,000,000
4,419,000,000 There are at least four sources of water on planet earth:
4,418,000,000 1) Much of the water migrated up from the mantle to the surface
4,417,000,000 when the mantle was molten. The earth's mantle still
4,416,000,000 contain 5 times more water than is found on the surface.
4,415,000,000 2) Volcanoes release water vapor.
4,414,000,000 Volcanoes also release hydrogen sulfide, food for sulfur bacteria.
4,413,000,000 3) Sulfur bacteria eat hydrogen sulfide and pee water.
4,412,000,000 Over time, a great deal of water was created by bacteria.
4,411,000,000 4) Icy rocks, icy planetoids, and comets bring water to the earth.
4,410,000,000
4,409,000,000
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4,401,000,000
4,400,000,000 Rain increasing. The earth is large enough and gravity is
4,399,000,000 strong enough that little water can escape into space. The
4,398,000,000 water that is lost is replaced by comets and volcanoes.
4,397,000,000 Top crust less than 200 degrees. The earth's surface
4,396,000,000 is mountain-less, flat, covered by water.
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4,208,000,000 In space ice-covered grains collide, stick together and form
4,207,000,000 increasingly larger objects, eventually becoming comets.
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4,116,000,000
4,115,000,000 The Moon does not just go around the Earth. In reality,
4,114,000,000 the two objects orbit about a common gravitational midpoint
4,113,000,000 called a barycenter. Centrifugal force causes water on the
4,112,000,000 far side to bulge out (pushed away) and the moons gravity
4,111,000,000 attracts water on the other side causing another bulge in
4,110,000,000 the earth's oceans. There are two high tides at the same time
4,109,000,000 on opposite sides of the earth. At this time, an earth day and
4,108,000,000 night is 6 hours. Massive tides occur every 3 hours.
4,107,000,000 The earth is still being bombarded by asteroids and comets. Some
4,106,000,000 of the earth's surface was melted at the site of large impacts.
4,105,000,000 Most of the earth's water's remained cool enough to sustain
4,104,000,000 the microbes that arrived from  space.  Comets continue to bring
4,103,000,000 water to the earth and sulfur bacteria continue to make water.
4,102,000,000
4,101,000,000
4,100,000,000 No mountains, water covering the earth. Only volcanoes
4,099,000,000 sticking their heads out of the water. The moon orbits
4,098,000,000 the earth at about 120,000 miles away compared to today's
4,097,000,000 238,000 miles. Massive tidal waves
4,096,000,000 circle the earth twice a day eroding away any
4,095,000,000 land sticking out above the water. On this world, at this
4,094,000,000 time, land is temporary.
4,093,000,000 We now know that the vacuum of space and extreme
4,092,000,000 hot and cold is not fatal to bacteria.
4,091,000,000
4,090,000,000
4,089,000,000
4,088,000,000
4,087,000,000 Archaea: a purple membrane containing organism that
4,086,000,000 gave the sea a purple color. Archaea are not plants or
4,085,000,000 animals, nor are they bacteria or viruses. They are
4,084,000,000 a separate and different life form.
4,083,000,000 The water is too hot for cyanobacteria live well.
4,082,000,000 Archaea and sulfur bacteria can stand the heat.
4,081,000,000 The atmosphere consisted of carbon dioxide,
4,080,000,000 nitrogen, water vapor, methane and
4,079,000,000 hydrogen sulfide.
4,078,000,000
4,077,000,000 Many different microbes arrive from space. In this article
4,076,000,000 we will deal only with three (archaea, cyanobacteria, and
4,075,000,000 sulfur bacteria) because each was the dominant life form on
4,074,000,000 earth at certain points in time.
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4,015,000,000 Some microorganisms can remain
4,014,000,000 dormant for hundreds of millions of
4,013,000,000 years, perhaps billions of years, or forever.
4,012,000,000 When conditions are right, they are reanimated.
4,011,000,000
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4,004,000,000 Comets continue to bring water to the earth and
4,003,000,000 seed the earth with microorganisms. This will
4,002,000,000 continue as long as comets hit the earth.
4,001,000,000 The water on the earth's surface and the air temperature
4,000,000,000 is about 150 degrees. Sunlight 30% weaker than it is today.
3,999,000,000 The temperature is low enough for cyanobacteria to live well.
3,998,000,000 Empact by planetesimals occur less often as the planets
3,997,000,000 gravitational pull sweeps the solar system clear of debris.
3,996,000,000 Earth slightly smaller than it is today. Still no mountains,
3,995,000,000 only a few volcanoes sticking their heads out of the water.
3,994,000,000 Volcanoes release hydrogen and cyanobacteria produce oxygen
3,993,000,000 making more water on earth.
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3,923,000,000
3,922,000,000
3,921,000,000
3,920,000,000
3,919,000,000
3,918,000,000
3,917,000,000
3,916,000,000
3,915,000,000
3,914,000,000
3,913,000,000
3,912,000,000
3,911,000,000
3,910,000,000
3,909,000,000
3,908,000,000
3,907,000,000
3,906,000,000
3,905,000,000
3,904,000,000
3,903,000,000
3,902,000,000
3,901,000,000 Up until this time the Earth and Moon were massively bombarded
3,900,000,000 (one per hundred years) by planetesimals and large meteorites.
3,899,000,000 Most of the craters still seen on the moon were caused before this time.
3,898,000,000 Erosion erased all of the craters on the earth.
3,897,000,000 Comets continue to seed the earth with bacteria.
3,896,000,000 Cyanobacteria, sulfur bacteria and archaea continue to arrive  on
3,895,000,000 earth by way of comets. Living conditions for cyanobacteria improving.
3,894,000,000 Cyanobacteria can tolerate the extreme damaging effect of solar UV-B
3,893,000,000 by synthesizing a variety of protecting pigments which either
3,892,000,000 screen or prevent the effect of the radiation.
3,891,000,000 Seawater also protects living organisms from UV radiation.
3,890,000,000 Archaea are found living on the surface waters of the sea.
3,889,000,000 Cyanobacteria are floating on a layer just below them.
3,888,000,000 Sulfur bacteria are found living in the oxygen-less mud
3,887,000,000 at the bottom of the sea.
3,886,000,000 Sulfur bacteria take in hydrogen sulfide and expel sulfur.
3,885,000,000 These bacteria cannot thrive in oxygenated environments.
3,884,000,000 Cyanobacteria use the suns energy to take in carbon dioxide
3,883,000,000 and water and expel oxygen. At night cyanobacteria fix nitrogen.
3,882,000,000 Nickel was abundant in the Earth's primordial oceans. Archaea
3,881,000,000 rely on nickel-based enzymes for key metabolic processes to produce 
3,880,000,000 methane. Archaea thrive in this environment producing a great amount 
3,878,000,000 of the greenhouse gas methane that keeps the earth's atmosphere 
3,877,000,000 warm. Sulfur is one of the components that make up proteins,
3,876,000,000 vitamins and hormones.
3,875,000,000 Proteins consist of amino acids that contain sulfur. Sulfur is important for
3,874,000,000 the functioning of proteins and enzymes in plants. Animals depend on
3,873,000,000 plants to get sulfur. Sulfur bacteria take in the toxic hydrogen sulfide
3,872,000,000 emitted by volcanoes and release elemental sulfur, carbohydrates, and
3,871,000,000 sulfuric acid, and water.
3,870,000,000 All living organisms found on earth need nitrogen,
3,869,000,000 a basic component of amino acids and proteins.
3,868,000,000 But for atmospheric nitrogen to be usable, it must be
3,867,000,000 "fixed," or converted to a biologically useful form.
3,866,000,000 Cyanobacteria turn atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia,
3,865,000,000 a form in which the nitrogen can be easily absorbed
3,864,000,000 by other organisms. Amino acids are critical to life,
3,863,000,000 and have a variety of roles in metabolism. They are the
3,862,000,000 building blocks of proteins, which are linear chains of
3,861,000,000 amino acids. Meteorites with an abundance of carbon are called
3,860,000,000 carbonaceous chondrites. They constantly bring amino acids to Earth.
3,859,000,000 Oxygen is highly corrosive and toxic to all living things
3,858,000,000 in high concentrations. Today animals take in oxygen and
3,857,000,000 and expel carbon dioxide. Animals constantly remove oxygen
3,856,000,000 not allowing it to build into toxic concentrations.
3,855,000,000 At this time, there are no animals to remove oxygen.
3,854,000,000 Oxygen is removed in the sea by rusting iron.
3,853,000,000 Enormous quantities of methane are produced by archaea keeping the
3,852,000,000 planet warm. Cyanobacteria create the planet's oxygen in the oceans.
3,851,000,000 Some of this oxygen escapes into the atmosphere and combines with
3,850,000,000 the methane forming carbon dioxide and water.
3,849,000,000 Sulfur bacteria remove toxic hydrogen sulfide
3,848,000,000 and in the process make water.
3,847,000,000 Methane would cause the earth to be a hot house, except, UV
3,846,000,000 light also breaks down methane, leaving its components free to
3,845,000,000 react with carbon dioxide, forming large organic molecules.
3,844,000,000 100 million kilograms of organic material could have been
3,843,000,000 produced each year as it floated down to
3,842,000,000 the Earth's surface. In addition to serving as a
3,841,000,000 source of organic material (food for microbes), it created a
3,840,000,000 haze layer over the Earth that shielded living organisms from
3,839,000,000 harmful UV rays.
3,838,000,000
3,837,000,000
3,836,000,000
3,835,000,000
3,834,000,000
3,833,000,000
3,832,000,000
3,831,000,000
3,830,000,000
3,829,000,000
3,828,000,000
3,827,000,000
3,826,000,000 Archaea are the dominate life form on earth, They
3,825,000,000 absorb green light for energy and reflect red and blue.
3,824,000,000 The ocean has a purple hue.
3,823,000,000 In the sea cyanobacteria are found floating on a layer beneath
3,822,000,000 the archaea. Cyanobacteria receive little green light and must
3,821,000,000 adapt to the red and blue light they receive for energy.
3,820,000,000
3,819,000,000
3,818,000,000
3,817,000,000
3,816,000,000
3,815,000,000
3,814,000,000
3,813,000,000
3,812,000,000
3,811,000,000
3,810,000,000 The balance of life is tipping in favor of cyanobacteria
3,809,000,000 because the chlorophyll it makes from the red and blue light
3,808,000,000 uses the energy from sunlight more efficiently than the
3,807,000,000 retinal made by archaea from green light.
3,806,000,000
3,805,000,000 More oxygen and less methane is being produced.
3,804,000,000 Without oxygen, methane can remain in the atmosphere for
3,803,000,000 thousands of years. In the presence of oxygen, methane is
3,802,000,000 oxidized and removed from the atmosphere. In today's
3,801,000,000 atmosphere, methane can last for about 10 years at most.
3,800,000,000
3,799,000,000 The first banded ironstone began forming in the sea.
3,798,000,000 Volcanoes release iron into the ocean as dissolved
3,797,000,000 ions of iron.
3,796,000,000 At first, without oxygen, the iron had nothing to react with and
3,795,000,000 did not rust. Iron remained in solution as silica minerals were
3,794,000,000 deposited on the ocean's floor. But now, Cyanobacteria are thriving
3,793,000,000 in localities and producing oxygen. The iron in these areas began to rust
3,792,000,000 in the presents of oxygen forming magnetite and hematite.
3,791,000,000 These iron oxides are insoluble and sink to the bottom of the sea.
3,790,000,000 Rusting iron constantly removed oxygen from the sea. Cyanobacteria
3,789,000,000 and sulfur bacteria thrived in this low oxygen environment. At
3,788,000,000 some point all the iron in the area had combined with the oxygen
3,787,000,000 and settled to the bottom. Without iron rusting, oxygen would increase.
3,786,000,000 Volcanoes would continue to release iron into the sea and remove some
3,785,000,000 of the oxygen, but very little compared to the amount of oxygen being
3,784,000,000 produced by the cyanobacteria. Eventually, the increasing quantity of
3,783,000,000 their waste products (oxygen) would become toxic to the cyanobacteria.
3,782,000,000 At that tipping point, when oxygen became so great they couldn't stand
3,781,000,000 it any longer, a massive die off would occur. Some bacteria survive
3,780,000,000 in sheltered places where there is little or no oxygen.
3,779,000,000 Iron being released into the sea eventually used up all the oxygen in
3,778,000,000 the sea. When the oxygen is used up, iron remains in solution and
3,777,000,000 silica minerals are again being deposited on the ocean's floor. With no
3,776,000,000 oxygen, the surviving bacteria begin to multiply. Cyanobacteria begin
3,775,000,000 to produce oxygen, iron begins to rust, and the multi-million year cycle
3,774,000,000 is repeated over and over again until there is no more iron to be rusted.
3,773,000,000 These life and death cycles did not occur over the entire earth's
3,772,000,000 surface at the same time. Localized areas with different conditions
3,771,000,000 would have their own cycles.
3,770,000,000
3,769,000,000
3,768,000,000
3,767,000,000
3,766,000,000
3,765,000,000
3,764,000,000
3,763,000,000
3,762,000,000
3,761,000,000
3,760,000,000
3,759,000,000
3,758,000,000
3,757,000,000
3,756,000,000
3,755,000,000
3,754,000,000
3,753,000,000
3,752,000,000
3,751,000,000
3,750,000,000
3,749,000,000
3,748,000,000
3,747,000,000
3,746,000,000
3,745,000,000
3,744,000,000
3,743,000,000
3,742,000,000
3,741,000,000
3,740,000,000
3,739,000,000
3,738,000,000
3,737,000,000
3,736,000,000
3,735,000,000
3,734,000,000
3,733,000,000
3,732,000,000
3,731,000,000
3,730,000,000
3,729,000,000
3,728,000,000
3,727,000,000
3,726,000,000
3,725,000,000
3,724,000,000
3,723,000,000
3,722,000,000
3,721,000,000
3,720,000,000
3,719,000,000
3,718,000,000
3,717,000,000
3,716,000,000
3,715,000,000
3,714,000,000
3,713,000,000
3,712,000,000
3,711,000,000
3,710,000,000
3,709,000,000
3,708,000,000
3,707,000,000
3,706,000,000
3,705,000,000
3,704,000,000
3,703,000,000
3,702,000,000
3,701,000,000
3,700,000,000
3,699,000,000
3,698,000,000
3,697,000,000
3,696,000,000
3,695,000,000
3,694,000,000
3,693,000,000
3,692,000,000
3,691,000,000
3,690,000,000
3,689,000,000
3,688,000,000
3,687,000,000
3,686,000,000
3,685,000,000
3,684,000,000
3,683,000,000
3,682,000,000
3,681,000,000
3,680,000,000
3,679,000,000
3,678,000,000
3,677,000,000
3,676,000,000
3,675,000,000
3,674,000,000
3,673,000,000
3,672,000,000
3,671,000,000
3,670,000,000
3,669,000,000
3,668,000,000
3,667,000,000
3,666,000,000
3,665,000,000
3,664,000,000
3,663,000,000
3,662,000,000
3,661,000,000
3,660,000,000
3,659,000,000
3,658,000,000
3,657,000,000
3,656,000,000
3,655,000,000
3,654,000,000
3,653,000,000
3,652,000,000
3,651,000,000
3,650,000,000
3,649,000,000
3,648,000,000
3,647,000,000
3,646,000,000
3,645,000,000
3,644,000,000
3,643,000,000
3,642,000,000
3,641,000,000
3,640,000,000
3,639,000,000
3,638,000,000
3,637,000,000
3,636,000,000
3,635,000,000
3,634,000,000
3,633,000,000
3,632,000,000
3,631,000,000
3,630,000,000
3,629,000,000
3,628,000,000
3,627,000,000
3,626,000,000
3,625,000,000
3,624,000,000
3,623,000,000
3,622,000,000
3,621,000,000
3,620,000,000
3,619,000,000
3,618,000,000
3,617,000,000
3,616,000,000
3,615,000,000
3,614,000,000
3,613,000,000
3,612,000,000
3,611,000,000
3,610,000,000 Both Earth and Mars have been wet and warm for a very long time.
3,609,000,000 Microbes that arrived from space are doing well on both planets.
3,608,000,000 On Mars volcanic activity is coming to an end. With fewer green house
3,607,000,000 gasses being released, the planet cools. With its smaller size, gravity can't
3,606,000,000 hold onto its atmosphere and Mars cools and begins to dry out.
3,605,000,000
3,604,000,000
3,603,000,000 On Earth we have a
3,602,000,000 methane rich atmosphere.
3,601,000,000 Air temperature about 100 degrees.
3,600,000,000 Prokaryotes (Archaea) a tiny one-celled
3,599,000,000 organisms, living in the sea, exploit
3,598,000,000 a great variety of energy sources.
3,597,000,000 They can use sugars, ammonia, metal ions
3,596,000,000 and even hydrogen gas as nutrients and sunlight
3,595,000,000 as a source of energy.
3,594,000,000 They can be found today in the sea,
3,593,000,000 in volcanic hot pools and in your intestines.
3,592,000,000 Archaea in plankton may be one of the most
3,591,000,000 abundant groups of organisms on the planet.
3,590,000,000 They are responsible for the bad smell
3,589,000,000 of flatulence (methane).
3,588,000,000
3,587,000,000 Others believe that cyanobacteria are the
3,586,000,000 most abundant group of organisms on the planet.
3,585,000,000 They can be found everywhere, The green slime in
3,584,000,000 your swimming pool or pond, on your garden soil
3,583,000,000 after too much rain, in the ocean and all bodies
3,582,000,000 of water. They are everywhere, even making up the
3,581,000,000 slippery slime on your teeth.
3,580,000,000
3,579,000,000
3,578,000,000
3,577,000,000
3,576,000,000
3,575,000,000
3,574,000,000
3,573,000,000
3,572,000,000
3,571,000,000
3,570,000,000
3,569,000,000
3,568,000,000
3,567,000,000
3,566,000,000
3,565,000,000
3,564,000,000
3,563,000,000
3,562,000,000
3,561,000,000
3,560,000,000
3,559,000,000
3,558,000,000
3,557,000,000
3,556,000,000
3,555,000,000
3,554,000,000
3,553,000,000
3,552,000,000
3,551,000,000
3,550,000,000
3,549,000,000
3,548,000,000
3,547,000,000
3,546,000,000
3,545,000,000
3,544,000,000
3,543,000,000
3,542,000,000
3,541,000,000
3,540,000,000
3,539,000,000
3,538,000,000
3,537,000,000
3,536,000,000
3,535,000,000
3,534,000,000
3,533,000,000
3,532,000,000
3,531,000,000
3,530,000,000
3,529,000,000
3,528,000,000
3,527,000,000
3,526,000,000
3,525,000,000
3,524,000,000
3,523,000,000
3,522,000,000
3,521,000,000
3,520,000,000
3,519,000,000
3,518,000,000
3,517,000,000
3,516,000,000
3,515,000,000
3,514,000,000
3,513,000,000
3,512,000,000
3,511,000,000
3,510,000,000
3,509,000,000
3,508,000,000
3,507,000,000
3,506,000,000
3,505,000,000
3,504,000,000 Water covers the earth's surface.
3,503,000,000 Plate tectonics have begun to pattern the earth's
3,502,000,000 surface. Mountains began to form beneath the sea,
3,501,000,000 some sticking their heads out of the water.
3,500,000,000 microbial remains(stromatolites) found in
3,499,000,000 Western Australia's Pilbara region
3,498,000,000 dated to this time (Stromatolites are layered structures
3,497,000,000 formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding
3,496,000,000 and cementation of sedimentary grains
3,495,000,000 of micro-organisms, especially cyanobacteria. )
3,494,000,000
3,493,000,000
3,492,000,000
3,491,000,000
3,490,000,000
3,489,000,000
3,488,000,000
3,487,000,000
3,486,000,000
3,485,000,000
3,484,000,000
3,483,000,000
3,482,000,000
3,481,000,000
3,480,000,000
3,479,000,000
3,478,000,000
3,477,000,000
3,476,000,000
3,475,000,000
3,474,000,000
3,473,000,000
3,472,000,000
3,471,000,000
3,470,000,000 An asteroid, estimated to be 12 to 30 miles wide, slammed into Earth.
3,469,000,000 The upper ocean boiled into steam killing most of the microbes in
3,468,000,000 the upper ocean. Bacteria in the deep ocean survived. Sulfur bacteria
3,467,000,000 living in the mud under the ocean are now the dominate life
3,466,000,000 form on earth. The impact and the volcanism it caused, increased
3,465,000,000 the release of hydrogen sulfide. The sulfur bacteria metabolized
3,464,000,000 hydrogen sulfide to make more water.
3,463,000,000 CO2 + 2H2S = CH2O + H2O + 2S
3,462,000,000 Carbon dioxide + hydrogen sulfide = sugar + water + sulfur
3,461,000,000 Surviving cyanobacteria and archaea began the long
3,460,000,000 process (one million years) to repopulate.
3,459,000,000 Paleontologist J. William Schopf at the University of California
3,458,000,000 identified eleven different species that resemble cyanobacteria
3,457,000,000 that date to this time.
3,456,000,000
3,455,000,000
3,454,000,000
3,453,000,000
3,452,000,000
3,451,000,000
3,450,000,000
3,449,000,000
3,448,000,000
3,447,000,000
3,446,000,000
3,445,000,000
3,444,000,000
3,443,000,000
3,442,000,000
3,441,000,000
3,440,000,000
3,439,000,000
3,438,000,000
3,437,000,000
3,436,000,000
3,435,000,000
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3,433,000,000
3,432,000,000
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3,378,000,000
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3,221,000,000
3,220,000,000
3,219,000,000
3,218,000,000
3,217,000,000
3,216,000,000
3,215,000,000
3,214,000,000
3,213,000,000
3,212,000,000
3,211,000,000
3,210,000,000
3,209,000,000
3,208,000,000
3,207,000,000
3,206,000,000
3,205,000,000
3,204,000,000
3,203,000,000
3,202,000,000
3,201,000,000
3,200,000,000
3,199,000,000
3,198,000,000
3,197,000,000
3,196,000,000
3,195,000,000
3,194,000,000
3,193,000,000
3,192,000,000
3,191,000,000
3,190,000,000
3,189,000,000
3,188,000,000
3,187,000,000
3,186,000,000
3,185,000,000
3,184,000,000
3,183,000,000
3,182,000,000
3,181,000,000
3,180,000,000
3,179,000,000
3,178,000,000
3,177,000,000
3,176,000,000
3,175,000,000
3,174,000,000
3,173,000,000
3,172,000,000
3,171,000,000
3,170,000,000
3,169,000,000
3,168,000,000
3,167,000,000
3,166,000,000
3,165,000,000
3,164,000,000
3,163,000,000
3,162,000,000
3,161,000,000
3,160,000,000
3,159,000,000
3,158,000,000
3,157,000,000
3,156,000,000
3,155,000,000
3,154,000,000
3,153,000,000
3,152,000,000
3,151,000,000
3,150,000,000
3,149,000,000
3,148,000,000
3,147,000,000
3,146,000,000
3,145,000,000
3,144,000,000
3,143,000,000
3,142,000,000
3,141,000,000
3,140,000,000
3,139,000,000
3,138,000,000
3,137,000,000
3,136,000,000
3,135,000,000
3,134,000,000
3,133,000,000
3,132,000,000
3,131,000,000
3,130,000,000
3,129,000,000
3,128,000,000
3,127,000,000
3,126,000,000
3,125,000,000
3,124,000,000
3,123,000,000
3,122,000,000
3,121,000,000
3,120,000,000
3,119,000,000
3,118,000,000
3,117,000,000
3,116,000,000
3,115,000,000
3,114,000,000
3,113,000,000
3,112,000,000
3,111,000,000
3,110,000,000
3,109,000,000
3,108,000,000
3,107,000,000
3,106,000,000
3,105,000,000
3,104,000,000
3,103,000,000
3,102,000,000
3,101,000,000
3,100,000,000
3,099,000,000
3,098,000,000
3,097,000,000
3,096,000,000
3,095,000,000
3,094,000,000
3,093,000,000
3,092,000,000
3,091,000,000
3,090,000,000
3,089,000,000
3,088,000,000
3,087,000,000
3,086,000,000
3,085,000,000
3,084,000,000
3,083,000,000
3,082,000,000
3,081,000,000
3,080,000,000
3,079,000,000
3,078,000,000
3,077,000,000
3,076,000,000
3,075,000,000
3,074,000,000
3,073,000,000
3,072,000,000
3,071,000,000
3,070,000,000
3,069,000,000
3,068,000,000
3,067,000,000
3,066,000,000
3,065,000,000
3,064,000,000
3,063,000,000
3,062,000,000
3,061,000,000
3,060,000,000
3,059,000,000
3,058,000,000
3,057,000,000
3,056,000,000
3,055,000,000
3,054,000,000
3,053,000,000
3,052,000,000
3,051,000,000
3,050,000,000
3,049,000,000
3,048,000,000
3,047,000,000
3,046,000,000
3,045,000,000
3,044,000,000
3,043,000,000
3,042,000,000
3,041,000,000
3,040,000,000
3,039,000,000
3,038,000,000
3,037,000,000
3,036,000,000
3,035,000,000
3,034,000,000
3,033,000,000
3,032,000,000
3,031,000,000
3,030,000,000
3,029,000,000
3,028,000,000
3,027,000,000
3,026,000,000
3,025,000,000
3,024,000,000
3,023,000,000
3,022,000,000
3,021,000,000
3,020,000,000
3,019,000,000
3,018,000,000
3,017,000,000
3,016,000,000
3,015,000,000
3,014,000,000
3,013,000,000
3,012,000,000
3,011,000,000
3,010,000,000
3,009,000,000
3,008,000,000
3,007,000,000
3,006,000,000
3,005,000,000
3,004,000,000
3,003,000,000 Small micro pieces of land sticking out above the water
3,002,000,000 came together to form a very small continent called Ur.
3,001,000,000 Small pieces of this continent can be found in current
3,000,000,000 day Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica.
2,999,000,000
2,998,000,000 Cyanobacteria  (blue-green algae or pond scum)
2,997,000,000 have been the prevailing life form for
2,996,000,000 the past billion years and will continue
2,995,000,000 to be for the next billion years.
2,994,000,000 Cyanobacteria can convert carbon dioxide and water
2,993,000,000 into sugars and oxygen.
2,992,000,000 The air temperature is about 100 degrees.
2,991,000,000 Banded iron continues to be made.
2,990,000,000 Microbes have made significant changes in the earth's
2,989,000,000 environment and the microbes themselves have diversified
2,988,000,000 to become more sophisticated and better adapted to their
2,987,000,000 changing environment. Each domain (bacteria and archaea)
2,986,000,000 split into multiple lineage to assume different roles
2,985,000,000 (division of labor).
2,984,000,000
2,983,000,000
2,982,000,000
2,981,000,000
2,980,000,000
2,979,000,000
2,978,000,000
2,977,000,000
2,976,000,000
2,975,000,000
2,974,000,000
2,973,000,000
2,972,000,000
2,971,000,000
2,970,000,000
2,969,000,000
2,968,000,000
2,967,000,000
2,966,000,000
2,965,000,000
2,964,000,000
2,963,000,000
2,962,000,000
2,961,000,000
2,960,000,000
2,959,000,000
2,958,000,000
2,957,000,000
2,956,000,000
2,955,000,000
2,954,000,000
2,953,000,000
2,952,000,000
2,951,000,000
2,950,000,000
2,949,000,000
2,948,000,000
2,947,000,000
2,946,000,000
2,945,000,000
2,944,000,000
2,943,000,000
2,942,000,000
2,941,000,000
2,940,000,000
2,939,000,000
2,938,000,000
2,937,000,000
2,936,000,000
2,935,000,000
2,934,000,000
2,933,000,000
2,932,000,000
2,931,000,000
2,930,000,000
2,929,000,000
2,928,000,000
2,927,000,000
2,926,000,000
2,925,000,000
2,924,000,000
2,923,000,000
2,922,000,000
2,921,000,000
2,920,000,000
2,919,000,000
2,918,000,000
2,917,000,000
2,916,000,000
2,915,000,000
2,914,000,000
2,913,000,000
2,912,000,000
2,911,000,000
2,910,000,000
2,909,000,000
2,908,000,000
2,907,000,000
2,906,000,000
2,905,000,000
2,904,000,000
2,903,000,000
2,902,000,000
2,901,000,000
2,900,000,000 Periods of glaciation  (polar ice caps) have occurred
2,899,000,000 as a consequence of variations in green house gases.
2,898,000,000
2,897,000,000
2,896,000,000
2,895,000,000
2,894,000,000
2,893,000,000
2,892,000,000
2,891,000,000
2,890,000,000
2,889,000,000
2,888,000,000
2,887,000,000
2,886,000,000
2,885,000,000
2,884,000,000
2,883,000,000
2,882,000,000
2,881,000,000
2,880,000,000
2,879,000,000
2,878,000,000
2,877,000,000
2,876,000,000
2,875,000,000
2,874,000,000
2,873,000,000
2,872,000,000
2,871,000,000
2,870,000,000
2,869,000,000
2,868,000,000
2,867,000,000
2,866,000,000
2,865,000,000
2,864,000,000
2,863,000,000
2,862,000,000
2,861,000,000
2,860,000,000
2,859,000,000
2,858,000,000
2,857,000,000
2,856,000,000
2,855,000,000
2,854,000,000
2,853,000,000
2,852,000,000
2,851,000,000
2,850,000,000
2,849,000,000
2,848,000,000
2,847,000,000
2,846,000,000
2,845,000,000
2,844,000,000
2,843,000,000
2,842,000,000
2,841,000,000
2,840,000,000
2,839,000,000
2,838,000,000
2,837,000,000
2,836,000,000
2,835,000,000
2,834,000,000
2,833,000,000
2,832,000,000
2,831,000,000
2,830,000,000
2,829,000,000
2,828,000,000
2,827,000,000
2,826,000,000
2,825,000,000
2,824,000,000
2,823,000,000
2,822,000,000
2,821,000,000
2,820,000,000
2,819,000,000
2,818,000,000
2,817,000,000
2,816,000,000
2,815,000,000
2,814,000,000
2,813,000,000
2,812,000,000
2,811,000,000
2,810,000,000
2,809,000,000
2,808,000,000
2,807,000,000
2,806,000,000
2,805,000,000
2,804,000,000
2,803,000,000
2,802,000,000
2,801,000,000
2,800,000,000
2,799,000,000
2,798,000,000
2,797,000,000
2,796,000,000
2,795,000,000
2,794,000,000
2,793,000,000
2,792,000,000
2,791,000,000
2,790,000,000
2,789,000,000
2,788,000,000
2,787,000,000
2,786,000,000
2,785,000,000
2,784,000,000
2,783,000,000
2,782,000,000
2,781,000,000
2,780,000,000
2,779,000,000
2,778,000,000
2,777,000,000
2,776,000,000
2,775,000,000
2,774,000,000
2,773,000,000
2,772,000,000
2,771,000,000
2,770,000,000
2,769,000,000
2,768,000,000
2,767,000,000
2,766,000,000
2,765,000,000
2,764,000,000
2,763,000,000
2,762,000,000
2,761,000,000
2,760,000,000
2,759,000,000
2,758,000,000
2,757,000,000
2,756,000,000
2,755,000,000
2,754,000,000
2,753,000,000
2,752,000,000
2,751,000,000
2,750,000,000
2,749,000,000
2,748,000,000
2,747,000,000
2,746,000,000
2,745,000,000
2,744,000,000
2,743,000,000
2,742,000,000
2,741,000,000
2,740,000,000
2,739,000,000
2,738,000,000
2,737,000,000
2,736,000,000
2,735,000,000
2,734,000,000
2,733,000,000
2,732,000,000
2,731,000,000
2,730,000,000
2,729,000,000
2,728,000,000
2,727,000,000
2,726,000,000
2,725,000,000
2,724,000,000
2,723,000,000
2,722,000,000
2,721,000,000
2,720,000,000 Microbes (archaea, cyanobacteria) are adapting to living with oxygen.
2,719,000,000
2,718,000,000 The amount of dissolved nickel in the sea is declining. Nickel is a
2,717,000,000 key ingredient in an enzyme archaea need to make methane. Methane
2,716,000,000 production by archaea is declining.
2,715,000,000
2,714,000,000
2,713,000,000
2,712,000,000
2,711,000,000
2,710,000,000
2,709,000,000
2,708,000,000
2,707,000,000
2,706,000,000
2,705,000,000
2,704,000,000
2,703,000,000
2,702,000,000
2,701,000,000
2,700,000,000
2,699,000,000
2,698,000,000
2,697,000,000
2,696,000,000
2,695,000,000
2,694,000,000
2,693,000,000
2,692,000,000
2,691,000,000
2,690,000,000
2,689,000,000
2,688,000,000
2,687,000,000
2,686,000,000
2,685,000,000
2,684,000,000
2,683,000,000
2,682,000,000
2,681,000,000
2,680,000,000
2,679,000,000
2,678,000,000
2,677,000,000
2,676,000,000
2,675,000,000
2,674,000,000
2,673,000,000
2,672,000,000
2,671,000,000
2,670,000,000
2,669,000,000
2,668,000,000
2,667,000,000
2,666,000,000
2,665,000,000
2,664,000,000
2,663,000,000
2,662,000,000
2,661,000,000
2,660,000,000
2,659,000,000
2,658,000,000
2,657,000,000
2,656,000,000
2,655,000,000
2,654,000,000
2,653,000,000
2,652,000,000
2,651,000,000
2,650,000,000
2,649,000,000
2,648,000,000
2,647,000,000
2,646,000,000
2,645,000,000
2,644,000,000
2,643,000,000
2,642,000,000
2,641,000,000
2,640,000,000
2,639,000,000
2,638,000,000
2,637,000,000
2,636,000,000
2,635,000,000
2,634,000,000
2,633,000,000
2,632,000,000
2,631,000,000
2,630,000,000
2,629,000,000
2,628,000,000
2,627,000,000
2,626,000,000
2,625,000,000
2,624,000,000
2,623,000,000
2,622,000,000
2,621,000,000
2,620,000,000
2,619,000,000
2,618,000,000
2,617,000,000
2,616,000,000
2,615,000,000
2,614,000,000
2,613,000,000
2,612,000,000
2,611,000,000
2,610,000,000
2,609,000,000
2,608,000,000
2,607,000,000
2,606,000,000
2,605,000,000
2,604,000,000
2,603,000,000
2,602,000,000
2,601,000,000
2,600,000,000
2,599,000,000
2,598,000,000
2,597,000,000
2,596,000,000
2,595,000,000
2,594,000,000
2,593,000,000
2,592,000,000
2,591,000,000
2,590,000,000
2,589,000,000
2,588,000,000
2,587,000,000
2,586,000,000
2,585,000,000
2,584,000,000
2,583,000,000
2,582,000,000
2,581,000,000
2,580,000,000
2,579,000,000
2,578,000,000
2,577,000,000
2,576,000,000
2,575,000,000
2,574,000,000
2,573,000,000
2,572,000,000
2,571,000,000
2,570,000,000
2,569,000,000
2,568,000,000
2,567,000,000
2,566,000,000
2,565,000,000
2,564,000,000
2,563,000,000
2,562,000,000
2,561,000,000
2,560,000,000
2,559,000,000
2,558,000,000
2,557,000,000
2,556,000,000
2,555,000,000
2,554,000,000
2,553,000,000
2,552,000,000
2,551,000,000
2,550,000,000
2,549,000,000
2,548,000,000
2,547,000,000
2,546,000,000
2,545,000,000
2,544,000,000
2,543,000,000
2,542,000,000
2,541,000,000
2,540,000,000
2,539,000,000
2,538,000,000
2,537,000,000
2,536,000,000
2,535,000,000
2,534,000,000
2,533,000,000
2,532,000,000
2,531,000,000
2,530,000,000
2,529,000,000
2,528,000,000
2,527,000,000
2,526,000,000
2,525,000,000
2,524,000,000
2,523,000,000
2,522,000,000
2,521,000,000
2,520,000,000
2,519,000,000
2,518,000,000
2,517,000,000
2,516,000,000
2,515,000,000
2,514,000,000
2,513,000,000
2,512,000,000 Formation of banded ironstone continue. Cyanobacteria
2,511,000,000 continue to have a good living in the sea for millions
2,510,000,000 of years, followed by millions of bad years. Some
2,509,000,000 of their waste products, oxygen, can be found in the
2,508,000,000 atmosphere, where there is a small (<1%) but significant
2,507,000,000 amount of oxygen in the atmosphere.
2,506,000,000
2,505,000,000 90% of the earth's surface is covered with water.
2,504,000,000 The amount of dissolved nickel in the ocean is half of what
2,503,000,000 it used to be. Lower levels of nickel severely cut back the
2,502,000,000 methane production of archaea. Oxygen and methane combine
2,501,000,000 in the atmosphere reducing the amount of both. Oxygen reacted 
2,500,000,000 with the methane to produce carbon dioxide and water.
2,499,000,000  As atmospheric methane declined and cyanobacteria
2,498,000,000 continued to make oxygen, conditions for the rise of
2,497,000,000 oxygen have been set in place. Plate tectonics
2,496,000,000 pushing mountains above the sea. Cracks in the
2,495,000,000 earth's surface forming deep water. More land
2,494,000,000 forming above the sea. Stabilized continental
2,493,000,000 land masses arose and terrestrial volcanoes appeared.
2,492,000,000 Cyanobacteria are adapting to living with oxygen.
2,491,000,000
2,490,000,000
2,489,000,000
2,488,000,000
2,487,000,000
2,486,000,000
2,485,000,000
2,484,000,000
2,483,000,000
2,482,000,000
2,481,000,000
2,480,000,000
2,479,000,000
2,478,000,000
2,477,000,000
2,476,000,000
2,475,000,000
2,474,000,000
2,473,000,000
2,472,000,000
2,471,000,000
2,470,000,000
2,469,000,000
2,468,000,000
2,467,000,000
2,466,000,000
2,465,000,000
2,464,000,000
2,463,000,000
2,462,000,000
2,461,000,000
2,460,000,000
2,459,000,000
2,458,000,000
2,457,000,000
2,456,000,000
2,455,000,000
2,454,000,000
2,453,000,000
2,452,000,000
2,451,000,000
2,450,000,000
2,449,000,000
2,448,000,000
2,447,000,000
2,446,000,000
2,445,000,000
2,444,000,000
2,443,000,000
2,442,000,000
2,441,000,000
2,440,000,000
2,439,000,000
2,438,000,000
2,437,000,000
2,436,000,000
2,435,000,000
2,434,000,000
2,433,000,000
2,432,000,000
2,431,000,000
2,430,000,000
2,429,000,000
2,428,000,000
2,427,000,000
2,426,000,000
2,425,000,000
2,424,000,000
2,423,000,000
2,422,000,000
2,421,000,000
2,420,000,000
2,419,000,000
2,418,000,000
2,417,000,000
2,416,000,000
2,415,000,000
2,414,000,000
2,413,000,000
2,412,000,000
2,411,000,000 The nuclear fires that burn inside the earth's core do
2,410,000,000 not burn at a constant rate. 2.4 billion years ago a
2,409,000,000 lull in the reactor's fire also caused a lull in volcanic
2,408,000,000 activity on the earth's surface. With no new carbon
2,407,000,000 dioxide being spewed from volcanoes, its concentration
2,406,000,000 in the atmosphere declined, leading to global
2,405,000,000 cooling. With the decline in volcanic activity, no iron
2,404,000,000 was being released. Without iron rusting, the seas gave up
2,403,000,000 there oxygen. The oxygen in the atmosphere combined with the
2,402,000,000 methane, causing further reduction in green house gases.
2,401,000,000 Ice could be found nearly to the equator. There were several,
2,400,000,000 million year, cycles of glaciation between 2.45 and 2.2
2,399,000,000 billion years ago, then non for over a billion years.
2,398,000,000
2,397,000,000
2,396,000,000
2,395,000,000
2,394,000,000 The rise in atmospheric oxygen also caused the
2,393,000,000 increase in sulfide minerals on land to break
2,392,000,000 down into sulfates and wash into the oceans
2,391,000,000 where sulfur bacteria gobbled them up.
2,390,000,000
2,389,000,000
2,388,000,000
2,387,000,000
2,386,000,000
2,385,000,000
2,384,000,000
2,383,000,000
2,382,000,000
2,381,000,000
2,380,000,000
2,379,000,000
2,378,000,000
2,377,000,000
2,376,000,000
2,375,000,000
2,374,000,000
2,373,000,000
2,372,000,000
2,371,000,000
2,370,000,000
2,369,000,000
2,368,000,000
2,367,000,000
2,366,000,000
2,365,000,000
2,364,000,000
2,363,000,000
2,362,000,000
2,361,000,000
2,360,000,000
2,359,000,000
2,358,000,000
2,357,000,000
2,356,000,000
2,355,000,000
2,354,000,000
2,353,000,000
2,352,000,000
2,351,000,000
2,350,000,000
2,349,000,000
2,348,000,000
2,347,000,000
2,346,000,000
2,345,000,000
2,344,000,000
2,343,000,000
2,342,000,000
2,341,000,000
2,340,000,000
2,339,000,000
2,338,000,000
2,337,000,000
2,336,000,000
2,335,000,000
2,334,000,000
2,333,000,000
2,332,000,000
2,331,000,000
2,330,000,000
2,329,000,000
2,328,000,000
2,327,000,000
2,326,000,000
2,325,000,000
2,324,000,000
2,323,000,000
2,322,000,000
2,321,000,000
2,320,000,000
2,319,000,000
2,318,000,000
2,317,000,000
2,316,000,000
2,315,000,000
2,314,000,000
2,313,000,000
2,312,000,000
2,311,000,000
2,310,000,000
2,309,000,000
2,308,000,000
2,307,000,000
2,306,000,000
2,305,000,000
2,304,000,000
2,303,000,000
2,302,000,000
2,301,000,000
2,300,000,000
2,299,000,000
2,298,000,000
2,297,000,000
2,296,000,000
2,295,000,000
2,294,000,000
2,293,000,000
2,292,000,000
2,291,000,000
2,290,000,000
2,289,000,000
2,288,000,000
2,287,000,000
2,286,000,000
2,285,000,000
2,284,000,000
2,283,000,000
2,282,000,000
2,281,000,000
2,280,000,000
2,279,000,000
2,278,000,000
2,277,000,000
2,276,000,000
2,275,000,000
2,274,000,000
2,273,000,000
2,272,000,000
2,271,000,000
2,270,000,000
2,269,000,000
2,268,000,000
2,267,000,000
2,266,000,000
2,265,000,000
2,264,000,000
2,263,000,000
2,262,000,000
2,261,000,000
2,260,000,000
2,259,000,000
2,258,000,000
2,257,000,000
2,256,000,000
2,255,000,000
2,254,000,000
2,253,000,000
2,252,000,000
2,251,000,000
2,250,000,000
2,249,000,000
2,248,000,000
2,247,000,000
2,246,000,000
2,245,000,000
2,244,000,000
2,243,000,000
2,242,000,000
2,241,000,000
2,240,000,000
2,239,000,000
2,238,000,000
2,237,000,000
2,236,000,000
2,235,000,000
2,234,000,000
2,233,000,000
2,232,000,000
2,231,000,000
2,230,000,000
2,229,000,000
2,228,000,000
2,227,000,000
2,226,000,000
2,225,000,000
2,224,000,000
2,223,000,000
2,222,000,000
2,221,000,000
2,220,000,000
2,219,000,000
2,218,000,000
2,217,000,000
2,216,000,000
2,215,000,000
2,214,000,000
2,213,000,000
2,212,000,000
2,211,000,000
2,210,000,000
2,209,000,000
2,208,000,000
2,207,000,000
2,206,000,000
2,205,000,000
2,204,000,000
2,203,000,000
2,202,000,000
2,201,000,000
2,200,000,000
2,199,000,000
2,198,000,000
2,197,000,000
2,196,000,000
2,195,000,000
2,194,000,000
2,193,000,000
2,192,000,000
2,191,000,000
2,190,000,000
2,189,000,000
2,188,000,000
2,187,000,000
2,186,000,000
2,185,000,000
2,184,000,000
2,183,000,000
2,182,000,000
2,181,000,000
2,180,000,000
2,179,000,000
2,178,000,000
2,177,000,000
2,176,000,000
2,175,000,000
2,174,000,000
2,173,000,000
2,172,000,000
2,171,000,000
2,170,000,000
2,169,000,000
2,168,000,000
2,167,000,000
2,166,000,000
2,165,000,000
2,164,000,000
2,163,000,000
2,162,000,000
2,161,000,000
2,160,000,000
2,159,000,000
2,158,000,000
2,157,000,000
2,156,000,000
2,155,000,000
2,154,000,000
2,153,000,000
2,152,000,000
2,151,000,000
2,150,000,000
2,149,000,000
2,148,000,000
2,147,000,000
2,146,000,000
2,145,000,000
2,144,000,000
2,143,000,000
2,142,000,000
2,141,000,000
2,140,000,000
2,139,000,000
2,138,000,000
2,137,000,000
2,136,000,000
2,135,000,000
2,134,000,000
2,133,000,000
2,132,000,000
2,131,000,000
2,130,000,000
2,129,000,000
2,128,000,000
2,127,000,000
2,126,000,000
2,125,000,000
2,124,000,000
2,123,000,000
2,122,000,000
2,121,000,000
2,120,000,000
2,119,000,000
2,118,000,000
2,117,000,000
2,116,000,000
2,115,000,000
2,114,000,000
2,113,000,000
2,112,000,000
2,111,000,000
2,110,000,000
2,109,000,000
2,108,000,000
2,107,000,000
2,106,000,000
2,105,000,000
2,104,000,000
2,103,000,000
2,102,000,000
2,101,000,000
2,100,000,000
2,099,000,000
2,098,000,000
2,097,000,000
2,096,000,000
2,095,000,000
2,094,000,000
2,093,000,000
2,092,000,000
2,091,000,000
2,090,000,000
2,089,000,000
2,088,000,000
2,087,000,000
2,086,000,000
2,085,000,000
2,084,000,000
2,083,000,000
2,082,000,000
2,081,000,000
2,080,000,000
2,079,000,000
2,078,000,000
2,077,000,000
2,076,000,000
2,075,000,000
2,074,000,000
2,073,000,000
2,072,000,000
2,071,000,000
2,070,000,000
2,069,000,000
2,068,000,000
2,067,000,000
2,066,000,000
2,065,000,000
2,064,000,000
2,063,000,000
2,062,000,000
2,061,000,000
2,060,000,000
2,059,000,000
2,058,000,000
2,057,000,000
2,056,000,000
2,055,000,000
2,054,000,000
2,053,000,000
2,052,000,000
2,051,000,000
2,050,000,000
2,049,000,000
2,048,000,000
2,047,000,000
2,046,000,000
2,045,000,000
2,044,000,000
2,043,000,000
2,042,000,000
2,041,000,000
2,040,000,000
2,039,000,000
2,038,000,000
2,037,000,000
2,036,000,000
2,035,000,000
2,034,000,000
2,033,000,000
2,032,000,000
2,031,000,000
2,030,000,000
2,029,000,000
2,028,000,000
2,027,000,000
2,026,000,000
2,025,000,000
2,024,000,000
2,023,000,000
2,022,000,000
2,021,000,000
2,020,000,000
2,019,000,000
2,018,000,000
2,017,000,000
2,016,000,000
2,015,000,000
2,014,000,000
2,013,000,000
2,012,000,000
2,011,000,000
2,010,000,000
2,009,000,000 Nitrogen fixing, ammonia producing cyanobacteria permitted
2,008,000,000 the evolution of more advanced, oxygen-breathing organisms.
2,007,000,000 First Kakabekia, a microscopic, ammonia consuming,
2,006,000,000 photosynthetic bacterium that release oxygen.
2,005,000,000 They are umbrella shaped with clubbed stalk.
2,004,000,000
2,003,000,000
2,002,000,000
2,001,000,000
2,000,000,000 A 10km diameter meteorite hits near what is
1,999,000,000 now Johannesburg at Vredefort.
1,998,000,000
1,997,000,000 The earth takes 800 days to circle the sun (1 year).
1,996,000,000 One earth day (day + night) is about 11 hours.
1,995,000,000 Cyanobacteria (common pond scum) and kakabekia
1,994,000,000 add significant amounts of oxygen to the sea
1,993,000,000 water. Larger quantities of oxygen escape
1,992,000,000 into the atmosphere.
1,991,000,000
1,990,000,000
1,989,000,000
1,988,000,000
1,987,000,000
1,986,000,000
1,985,000,000
1,984,000,000
1,983,000,000
1,982,000,000
1,981,000,000
1,980,000,000
1,979,000,000
1,978,000,000
1,977,000,000
1,976,000,000
1,975,000,000
1,974,000,000
1,973,000,000
1,972,000,000
1,971,000,000
1,970,000,000
1,969,000,000
1,968,000,000
1,967,000,000
1,966,000,000
1,965,000,000
1,964,000,000
1,963,000,000
1,962,000,000
1,961,000,000
1,960,000,000
1,959,000,000
1,958,000,000
1,957,000,000
1,956,000,000
1,955,000,000
1,954,000,000
1,953,000,000
1,952,000,000
1,951,000,000
1,950,000,000
1,949,000,000
1,948,000,000
1,947,000,000
1,946,000,000
1,945,000,000
1,944,000,000
1,943,000,000
1,942,000,000
1,941,000,000
1,940,000,000
1,939,000,000
1,938,000,000
1,937,000,000
1,936,000,000
1,935,000,000
1,934,000,000
1,933,000,000
1,932,000,000
1,931,000,000
1,930,000,000
1,929,000,000
1,928,000,000
1,927,000,000
1,926,000,000
1,925,000,000
1,924,000,000
1,923,000,000
1,922,000,000
1,921,000,000
1,920,000,000
1,919,000,000
1,918,000,000
1,917,000,000
1,916,000,000
1,915,000,000
1,914,000,000
1,913,000,000
1,912,000,000
1,911,000,000
1,910,000,000
1,909,000,000
1,908,000,000
1,907,000,000
1,906,000,000
1,905,000,000
1,904,000,000
1,903,000,000
1,902,000,000
1,901,000,000
1,900,000,000
1,899,000,000
1,898,000,000
1,897,000,000
1,896,000,000
1,895,000,000
1,894,000,000
1,893,000,000
1,892,000,000
1,891,000,000
1,890,000,000
1,889,000,000
1,888,000,000
1,887,000,000
1,886,000,000
1,885,000,000
1,884,000,000
1,883,000,000
1,882,000,000
1,881,000,000
1,880,000,000
1,879,000,000
1,878,000,000
1,877,000,000
1,876,000,000
1,875,000,000
1,874,000,000
1,873,000,000
1,872,000,000
1,871,000,000
1,870,000,000
1,869,000,000
1,868,000,000
1,867,000,000
1,866,000,000
1,865,000,000
1,864,000,000
1,863,000,000
1,862,000,000
1,861,000,000
1,860,000,000
1,859,000,000
1,858,000,000
1,857,000,000
1,856,000,000
1,855,000,000
1,854,000,000
1,853,000,000
1,852,000,000
1,851,000,000
1,850,000,000 The Sudbury impact, an asteroid about 10 kilometers across 
1,849,000,000 lands in the ocean.
1,848,000,000
1,847,000,000
1,846,000,000
1,845,000,000
1,844,000,000
1,843,000,000
1,842,000,000
1,841,000,000
1,840,000,000
1,839,000,000
1,838,000,000
1,837,000,000
1,836,000,000
1,835,000,000
1,834,000,000
1,833,000,000
1,832,000,000
1,831,000,000
1,830,000,000
1,829,000,000
1,828,000,000
1,827,000,000
1,826,000,000
1,825,000,000
1,824,000,000
1,823,000,000
1,822,000,000
1,821,000,000
1,820,000,000
1,819,000,000
1,818,000,000
1,817,000,000
1,816,000,000
1,815,000,000
1,814,000,000
1,813,000,000
1,812,000,000
1,811,000,000
1,810,000,000 The sea continues to give up some of its oxygen produced by
1,809,000,000 cyanobacteria. Atmospheric oxygen levels were becoming stable
1,808,000,000 and oxygen was greater than 3% and rising.
1,807,000,000 Protists, a single-celled organism blind, brainless, size of a grape,
1,806,000,000 living in the sea, covered with mud and travels  by rolling; trails
1,805,000,000 found dated to this time. They travel about
1,804,000,000 one centimeter a week.
1,803,000,000 Columbia, a supercontinent has formed. (Also called NENA)
1,802,000,000 Cyanobacteria were still generating oxygen in the uppermost
1,801,000,000 layer of the oceans, but a toxic layer was forming beneath.
1,800,000,000 Sulfur compounds were being washed into oceans by the
1,799,000,000 weathering of the continents. This sulfur was consumed
1,798,000,000 by sulfur bacteria, increasing their populations.
1,797,000,000 When they died, their decomposition
1,796,000,000 caused the removal of oxygen from the water and as a result:
1,795,000,000 less oxygen escape into the atmosphere. The rise of atmospheric
1,794,000,000 oxygen has slowed and will be slow for the next billion years
1,793,000,000 because it will take sulfur bacteria that long to remove the
1,792,000,000 sulfide in the ocean.
1,791,000,000
1,790,000,000
1,789,000,000
1,788,000,000
1,787,000,000
1,786,000,000
1,785,000,000
1,784,000,000
1,783,000,000
1,782,000,000
1,781,000,000
1,780,000,000
1,779,000,000
1,778,000,000
1,777,000,000
1,776,000,000
1,775,000,000
1,774,000,000
1,773,000,000
1,772,000,000
1,771,000,000
1,770,000,000
1,769,000,000
1,768,000,000
1,767,000,000
1,766,000,000
1,765,000,000
1,764,000,000
1,763,000,000
1,762,000,000
1,761,000,000
1,760,000,000
1,759,000,000
1,758,000,000
1,757,000,000
1,756,000,000
1,755,000,000
1,754,000,000
1,753,000,000
1,752,000,000
1,751,000,000
1,750,000,000
1,749,000,000
1,748,000,000
1,747,000,000
1,746,000,000
1,745,000,000
1,744,000,000
1,743,000,000
1,742,000,000
1,741,000,000
1,740,000,000
1,739,000,000
1,738,000,000
1,737,000,000
1,736,000,000
1,735,000,000
1,734,000,000
1,733,000,000
1,732,000,000
1,731,000,000
1,730,000,000
1,729,000,000
1,728,000,000
1,727,000,000
1,726,000,000
1,725,000,000
1,724,000,000
1,723,000,000
1,722,000,000
1,721,000,000
1,720,000,000
1,719,000,000
1,718,000,000
1,717,000,000
1,716,000,000
1,715,000,000
1,714,000,000
1,713,000,000
1,712,000,000
1,711,000,000
1,710,000,000
1,709,000,000
1,708,000,000
1,707,000,000
1,706,000,000
1,705,000,000
1,704,000,000
1,703,000,000
1,702,000,000
1,701,000,000                                             
1,700,000,000  fission on earth's surface—16 uranium deposits form
1,699,000,000 natural fission reactors in Gabon, Africa.
1,698,000,000 The nuclear fires lasted 1 million years.
1,697,000,000                                             
1,696,000,000
1,695,000,000
1,694,000,000
1,693,000,000
1,692,000,000
1,691,000,000
1,690,000,000
1,689,000,000
1,688,000,000
1,687,000,000
1,686,000,000
1,685,000,000
1,684,000,000
1,683,000,000
1,682,000,000
1,681,000,000
1,680,000,000
1,679,000,000
1,678,000,000
1,677,000,000
1,676,000,000
1,675,000,000
1,674,000,000
1,673,000,000
1,672,000,000
1,671,000,000
1,670,000,000
1,669,000,000
1,668,000,000
1,667,000,000
1,666,000,000
1,665,000,000
1,664,000,000
1,663,000,000
1,662,000,000
1,661,000,000
1,660,000,000
1,659,000,000
1,658,000,000
1,657,000,000
1,656,000,000
1,655,000,000
1,654,000,000
1,653,000,000
1,652,000,000
1,651,000,000
1,650,000,000
1,649,000,000
1,648,000,000
1,647,000,000
1,646,000,000
1,645,000,000
1,644,000,000
1,643,000,000
1,642,000,000
1,641,000,000
1,640,000,000
1,639,000,000
1,638,000,000
1,637,000,000
1,636,000,000
1,635,000,000
1,634,000,000
1,633,000,000
1,632,000,000
1,631,000,000
1,630,000,000
1,629,000,000
1,628,000,000
1,627,000,000
1,626,000,000
1,625,000,000
1,624,000,000
1,623,000,000
1,622,000,000
1,621,000,000
1,620,000,000
1,619,000,000
1,618,000,000
1,617,000,000
1,616,000,000
1,615,000,000
1,614,000,000
1,613,000,000
1,612,000,000
1,611,000,000
1,610,000,000
1,609,000,000
1,608,000,000
1,607,000,000
1,606,000,000
1,605,000,000
1,604,000,000
1,603,000,000
1,602,000,000
1,601,000,000
1,600,000,000 90 percent of banded iron formations have been deposited.
1,599,000,000
1,598,000,000
1,597,000,000
1,596,000,000
1,595,000,000
1,594,000,000
1,593,000,000
1,592,000,000
1,591,000,000
1,590,000,000
1,589,000,000
1,588,000,000
1,587,000,000
1,586,000,000
1,585,000,000
1,584,000,000
1,583,000,000
1,582,000,000
1,581,000,000
1,580,000,000
1,579,000,000
1,578,000,000
1,577,000,000
1,576,000,000
1,575,000,000
1,574,000,000
1,573,000,000
1,572,000,000
1,571,000,000
1,570,000,000
1,569,000,000
1,568,000,000
1,567,000,000
1,566,000,000
1,565,000,000
1,564,000,000
1,563,000,000
1,562,000,000
1,561,000,000
1,560,000,000
1,559,000,000
1,558,000,000
1,557,000,000
1,556,000,000
1,555,000,000
1,554,000,000
1,553,000,000
1,552,000,000
1,551,000,000
1,550,000,000
1,549,000,000
1,548,000,000
1,547,000,000
1,546,000,000
1,545,000,000
1,544,000,000
1,543,000,000
1,542,000,000
1,541,000,000
1,540,000,000
1,539,000,000
1,538,000,000
1,537,000,000
1,536,000,000
1,535,000,000
1,534,000,000
1,533,000,000
1,532,000,000
1,531,000,000
1,530,000,000
1,529,000,000
1,528,000,000
1,527,000,000
1,526,000,000
1,525,000,000
1,524,000,000
1,523,000,000
1,522,000,000
1,521,000,000
1,520,000,000
1,519,000,000
1,518,000,000
1,517,000,000
1,516,000,000
1,515,000,000
1,514,000,000
1,513,000,000
1,512,000,000
1,511,000,000
1,510,000,000
1,509,000,000
1,508,000,000
1,507,000,000
1,506,000,000
1,505,000,000
1,504,000,000
1,503,000,000
1,502,000,000
1,501,000,000 80% of the earth's continental crust has formed.
1,500,000,000 Supercontinent Columbia begins to break apart.
1,499,000,000 Volcanoes have run out of pure iron and the oxygen production
1,498,000,000 of cyanobacteria have cleared the oceans of this elemental iron.
1,497,000,000 Only rusted iron remains. Formation of banded ironstone no 
1,496,000,000 longer possible. Without iron rusting, the seas began to release
1,495,000,000 more oxygen into the atmosphere.
1,494,000,000
1,493,000,000
1,492,000,000
1,491,000,000
1,490,000,000
1,489,000,000
1,488,000,000
1,487,000,000
1,486,000,000
1,485,000,000
1,484,000,000
1,483,000,000
1,482,000,000
1,481,000,000
1,480,000,000
1,479,000,000
1,478,000,000
1,477,000,000
1,476,000,000
1,475,000,000
1,474,000,000
1,473,000,000
1,472,000,000
1,471,000,000
1,470,000,000
1,469,000,000
1,468,000,000
1,467,000,000
1,466,000,000
1,465,000,000
1,464,000,000
1,463,000,000
1,462,000,000
1,461,000,000
1,460,000,000
1,459,000,000
1,458,000,000 Bacteria and cyanobacteria are primitive prokaryotic life forms
1,457,000,000 having a cell wall which contains a single strand of DNA. They
1,456,000,000 multiply by simple cell division, forming exact copies of 
1,455,000,000 themselves. Their offspring share the exact same genetic code as 
1,454,000,000 the parent, so their evolution is very slow. Eukaryotic cells 
1,453,000,000 reproduce  sexually. Genetic material is mixed between two 
1,452,000,000 parents, yielding subtle differences, allowing them to adapt to 
1,451,000,000 new environments.
1,450,000,000 First Eukaryotes have genetic material in the form
1,449,000,000 of chromosomes enclosed in a membrane within the cell.
1,448,000,000 
1,447,000,000
1,446,000,000
1,445,000,000 Eukaryotes may have formed when
1,444,000,000 prokaryote bacteria were ingested
1,443,000,000 by  another organism  accidentally
1,442,000,000 forming a symbiotic relationship.
1,441,000,000 Instead of digesting the prokaryote,
1,440,000,000 keeping it because it helped deal
1,439,000,000 with the poison, Oxygen.
1,438,000,000
1,437,000,000
1,436,000,000
1,435,000,000
1,434,000,000
1,433,000,000
1,432,000,000
1,431,000,000
1,430,000,000 Subsequent acquisition of internal cyanobacteria gave
1,429,000,000 rise to the first plants when they began to
1,428,000,000 take up residence within certain eukaryote
1,427,000,000 cells, making food for the eukaryote host
1,426,000,000 in return for a home. The cyanobacterium living within
1,425,000,000 the eukaryote allowed this new plant to conduct
1,424,000,000 photosynthesis.
1,423,000,000
1,422,000,000
1,421,000,000 Chloroplasts are the green tissue of plants.
1,420,000,000 We now know from DNA sequencing that chloroplasts
1,419,000,000 evolved from Cyanobacteria. The chloroplast with which plants
1,418,000,000 make food for themselves is actually a cyanobacterium
1,417,000,000 living within the plant's cells.
1,416,000,000
1,415,000,000 The eukaryotes have divided into three groups.
1,414,000,000 The ancestors of modern plants, fungi and animals have split
1,413,000,000 into separate lineage's, and
1,412,000,000 now evolve separately. We do not know in what order the
1,411,000,000 three groups broke with each other. At this time they
1,410,000,000 were probably all still single-celled organisms.
1,409,000,000
1,408,000,000
1,407,000,000
1,406,000,000
1,405,000,000
1,404,000,000
1,403,000,000
1,402,000,000
1,401,000,000
1,400,000,000
1,399,000,000
1,398,000,000
1,397,000,000
1,396,000,000
1,395,000,000
1,394,000,000
1,393,000,000
1,392,000,000
1,391,000,000
1,390,000,000
1,389,000,000
1,388,000,000
1,387,000,000
1,386,000,000
1,385,000,000
1,384,000,000
1,383,000,000
1,382,000,000
1,381,000,000
1,380,000,000
1,379,000,000
1,378,000,000
1,377,000,000
1,376,000,000
1,375,000,000
1,374,000,000
1,373,000,000
1,372,000,000
1,371,000,000
1,370,000,000
1,369,000,000
1,368,000,000
1,367,000,000
1,366,000,000
1,365,000,000
1,364,000,000
1,363,000,000
1,362,000,000
1,361,000,000
1,360,000,000
1,359,000,000
1,358,000,000
1,357,000,000
1,356,000,000
1,355,000,000
1,354,000,000
1,353,000,000
1,352,000,000
1,351,000,000
1,350,000,000
1,349,000,000
1,348,000,000
1,347,000,000
1,346,000,000
1,345,000,000
1,344,000,000
1,343,000,000
1,342,000,000
1,341,000,000
1,340,000,000
1,339,000,000
1,338,000,000
1,337,000,000
1,336,000,000
1,335,000,000
1,334,000,000
1,333,000,000
1,332,000,000
1,331,000,000
1,330,000,000
1,329,000,000
1,328,000,000
1,327,000,000
1,326,000,000
1,325,000,000
1,324,000,000
1,323,000,000
1,322,000,000
1,321,000,000
1,320,000,000
1,319,000,000
1,318,000,000
1,317,000,000
1,316,000,000
1,315,000,000
1,314,000,000
1,313,000,000
1,312,000,000
1,311,000,000
1,310,000,000
1,309,000,000
1,308,000,000
1,307,000,000
1,306,000,000
1,305,000,000
1,304,000,000
1,303,000,000
1,302,000,000
1,301,000,000
1,300,000,000 Rodinia began forming about 1.3 billion years ago.
1,299,000,000 Rodinia, a super continent, began forming when
1,298,000,000 three or four small continents began colliding
1,297,000,000 forming a large mountain-building episode.
1,296,000,000
1,295,000,000
1,294,000,000
1,293,000,000
1,292,000,000
1,291,000,000
1,290,000,000
1,289,000,000
1,288,000,000
1,287,000,000
1,286,000,000
1,285,000,000
1,284,000,000
1,283,000,000
1,282,000,000
1,281,000,000
1,280,000,000
1,279,000,000
1,278,000,000
1,277,000,000
1,276,000,000
1,275,000,000
1,274,000,000
1,273,000,000
1,272,000,000
1,271,000,000
1,270,000,000
1,269,000,000
1,268,000,000
1,267,000,000
1,266,000,000
1,265,000,000
1,264,000,000
1,263,000,000
1,262,000,000
1,261,000,000
1,260,000,000
1,259,000,000
1,258,000,000
1,257,000,000
1,256,000,000
1,255,000,000
1,254,000,000
1,253,000,000
1,252,000,000
1,251,000,000
1,250,000,000
1,249,000,000
1,248,000,000
1,247,000,000
1,246,000,000
1,245,000,000
1,244,000,000
1,243,000,000
1,242,000,000
1,241,000,000
1,240,000,000
1,239,000,000
1,238,000,000
1,237,000,000
1,236,000,000
1,235,000,000
1,234,000,000
1,233,000,000
1,232,000,000
1,231,000,000
1,230,000,000
1,229,000,000
1,228,000,000
1,227,000,000
1,226,000,000
1,225,000,000
1,224,000,000
1,223,000,000
1,222,000,000
1,221,000,000
1,220,000,000
1,219,000,000
1,218,000,000
1,217,000,000
1,216,000,000
1,215,000,000
1,214,000,000
1,213,000,000
1,212,000,000
1,211,000,000
1,210,000,000
1,209,000,000
1,208,000,000
1,207,000,000
1,206,000,000
1,205,000,000
1,204,000,000
1,203,000,000
1,202,000,000
1,201,000,000
1,200,000,000
1,199,000,000
1,198,000,000
1,197,000,000
1,196,000,000
1,195,000,000
1,194,000,000
1,193,000,000
1,192,000,000
1,191,000,000
1,190,000,000
1,189,000,000
1,188,000,000
1,187,000,000
1,186,000,000
1,185,000,000
1,184,000,000
1,183,000,000
1,182,000,000
1,181,000,000
1,180,000,000
1,179,000,000
1,178,000,000
1,177,000,000
1,176,000,000
1,175,000,000
1,174,000,000
1,173,000,000
1,172,000,000
1,171,000,000
1,170,000,000
1,169,000,000
1,168,000,000
1,167,000,000
1,166,000,000
1,165,000,000
1,164,000,000
1,163,000,000
1,162,000,000
1,161,000,000
1,160,000,000
1,159,000,000
1,158,000,000
1,157,000,000
1,156,000,000
1,155,000,000
1,154,000,000
1,153,000,000
1,152,000,000
1,151,000,000
1,150,000,000
1,149,000,000
1,148,000,000
1,147,000,000
1,146,000,000
1,145,000,000
1,144,000,000
1,143,000,000
1,142,000,000
1,141,000,000
1,140,000,000
1,139,000,000
1,138,000,000
1,137,000,000
1,136,000,000
1,135,000,000
1,134,000,000
1,133,000,000
1,132,000,000
1,131,000,000
1,130,000,000
1,129,000,000
1,128,000,000
1,127,000,000
1,126,000,000
1,125,000,000
1,124,000,000
1,123,000,000
1,122,000,000
1,121,000,000
1,120,000,000
1,119,000,000
1,118,000,000
1,117,000,000
1,116,000,000
1,115,000,000
1,114,000,000
1,113,000,000
1,112,000,000
1,111,000,000
1,110,000,000
1,109,000,000
1,108,000,000
1,107,000,000
1,106,000,000
1,105,000,000
1,104,000,000
1,103,000,000
1,102,000,000
1,101,000,000
1,100,000,000
1,099,000,000
1,098,000,000
1,097,000,000
1,096,000,000
1,095,000,000
1,094,000,000
1,093,000,000
1,092,000,000
1,091,000,000
1,090,000,000
1,089,000,000
1,088,000,000
1,087,000,000
1,086,000,000
1,085,000,000
1,084,000,000
1,083,000,000
1,082,000,000
1,081,000,000
1,080,000,000
1,079,000,000
1,078,000,000
1,077,000,000
1,076,000,000
1,075,000,000
1,074,000,000
1,073,000,000
1,072,000,000
1,071,000,000
1,070,000,000
1,069,000,000
1,068,000,000
1,067,000,000
1,066,000,000
1,065,000,000
1,064,000,000
1,063,000,000
1,062,000,000
1,061,000,000
1,060,000,000
1,059,000,000
1,058,000,000
1,057,000,000
1,056,000,000
1,055,000,000
1,054,000,000
1,053,000,000
1,052,000,000
1,051,000,000
1,050,000,000
1,049,000,000
1,048,000,000
1,047,000,000
1,046,000,000
1,045,000,000
1,044,000,000
1,043,000,000
1,042,000,000
1,041,000,000
1,040,000,000
1,039,000,000
1,038,000,000
1,037,000,000
1,036,000,000
1,035,000,000
1,034,000,000
1,033,000,000
1,032,000,000
1,031,000,000
1,030,000,000
1,029,000,000
1,028,000,000
1,027,000,000
1,026,000,000
1,025,000,000
1,024,000,000
1,023,000,000
1,022,000,000
1,021,000,000
1,020,000,000
1,019,000,000
1,018,000,000
1,017,000,000
1,016,000,000
1,015,000,000
1,014,000,000
1,013,000,000
1,012,000,000
1,011,000,000
1,010,000,000
1,009,000,000
1,008,000,000
1,007,000,000
1,006,000,000
1,005,000,000
1,004,000,000
1,003,000,000
1,002,000,000 Oxygen near present levels.
1,001,000,000 Rodinia is fully formed and centered at the equator.
1,000,000,000 There are 500 days in one year and 17 hours in one day.
999,000,000    Eukaryotic algae (red algae and green algae) present.
998,000,000
997,000,000
996,000,000
995,000,000
994,000,000
993,000,000
992,000,000
991,000,000
990,000,000
989,000,000
988,000,000
987,000,000
986,000,000
985,000,000
984,000,000
983,000,000
982,000,000
981,000,000
980,000,000
979,000,000
978,000,000
977,000,000
976,000,000
975,000,000
974,000,000
973,000,000
972,000,000
971,000,000
970,000,000
969,000,000
968,000,000
967,000,000
966,000,000
965,000,000
964,000,000
963,000,000
962,000,000
961,000,000
960,000,000
959,000,000
958,000,000
957,000,000
956,000,000
955,000,000
954,000,000
953,000,000
952,000,000
951,000,000
950,000,000
949,000,000
948,000,000
947,000,000
946,000,000
945,000,000
944,000,000
943,000,000
942,000,000
941,000,000
940,000,000
939,000,000
938,000,000
937,000,000
936,000,000
935,000,000
934,000,000
933,000,000
932,000,000
931,000,000
930,000,000
929,000,000
928,000,000
927,000,000
926,000,000
925,000,000
924,000,000
923,000,000
922,000,000
921,000,000
920,000,000
919,000,000
918,000,000
917,000,000
916,000,000
915,000,000
914,000,000
913,000,000
912,000,000
911,000,000
910,000,000
909,000,000
908,000,000
907,000,000
906,000,000
905,000,000
904,000,000
903,000,000
902,000,000
901,000,000
900,000,000
899,000,000
898,000,000
897,000,000
896,000,000
895,000,000
894,000,000
893,000,000
892,000,000
891,000,000
890,000,000
889,000,000
888,000,000
887,000,000
886,000,000
885,000,000
884,000,000
883,000,000
882,000,000
881,000,000
880,000,000
879,000,000
878,000,000
877,000,000
876,000,000
875,000,000
874,000,000
873,000,000
872,000,000
871,000,000
870,000,000
869,000,000
868,000,000
867,000,000
866,000,000
865,000,000
864,000,000
863,000,000
862,000,000
861,000,000
860,000,000
859,000,000
858,000,000
857,000,000
856,000,000
855,000,000
854,000,000
853,000,000
852,000,000
851,000,000
850,000,000
849,000,000
848,000,000
847,000,000
846,000,000
845,000,000
844,000,000
843,000,000
842,000,000
841,000,000
840,000,000
839,000,000
838,000,000
837,000,000
836,000,000
835,000,000
834,000,000
833,000,000
832,000,000
831,000,000
830,000,000
829,000,000
828,000,000
827,000,000
826,000,000
825,000,000
824,000,000
823,000,000
822,000,000
821,000,000
820,000,000
819,000,000
818,000,000
817,000,000
816,000,000
815,000,000
814,000,000
813,000,000
812,000,000
811,000,000
810,000,000 Rain mixed with atmospheric carbon dioxide
809,000,000 form acid rain. This carbonic acid erodes land making
808,000,000 carbonate sediment that would later turn into rock.
807,000,000 Carbon dioxide being removed from the atmosphere in
806,000,000 this way prevents global warming. However, we now have a super 
805,000,000 continent, Rodinia, with a very large, dry, interior that receives 
804,000,000 little rain. Massive amounts of carbon dioxide are not being 
803,000,000 removed from the atmosphere and we have a very warm planet.
802,000,000
801,000,000
800,000,000 Rodinia begins to break apart.
799,000,000
798,000,000
797,000,000
796,000,000
795,000,000
794,000,000
793,000,000
792,000,000
791,000,000
790,000,000
789,000,000
788,000,000
787,000,000
786,000,000
785,000,000
784,000,000
783,000,000 With the breakup of Rodinia, formerly landlocked areas are now 
782,000,000 closer to oceanic sources of moisture. Rain removes carbon dioxide 
781,000,000 from the atmosphere forming acid rain. With less carbon dioxide in 
780,000,000 the  atmosphere, the planet begins to cool.
779,000,000
778,000,000
777,000,000
776,000,000
775,000,000
774,000,000
773,000,000
772,000,000
771,000,000
770,000,000
769,000,000
768,000,000
767,000,000
766,000,000
765,000,000
764,000,000
763,000,000
762,000,000
761,000,000
760,000,000
759,000,000
758,000,000
757,000,000
756,000,000
755,000,000
754,000,000
753,000,000
752,000,000
751,000,000 Snowball Earth
750,000,000 Extreme climate reversal began to occur. There were at least four 
749,000,000 cycles of brutal ice ages between 750 mya and 580 mya. The only life on 
748,000,000 this planet were microbes living in the ocean. Cyanobacteria were the 
747,000,000 dominate life form on Earth releasing large amounts of oxygen. Oxygen is 
746,000,000 capable of combining with methane and removing it from the atmosphere 
745,000,000 as a hothouse gas. In addition, rainfall in the form of acid rain removes 
744,000,000 some heat-trapping carbon dioxide out of the air. The reduction in these 
743,000,000 hothouse gases allows global temperatures fall. Large ice packs begin to 
742,000,000 form. White ice reflects more solar energy than the darker seawater, 
741,000,000 driving the temperature even lower and creating an unstoppable cooling 
740,000,000 that will engulf almost the entire planet in ice. Cyanobacteria under the ice 
739,000,000 begin a massive die off. Underwater volcanos continue to release the 
738,000,000 greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. The muddy bottom sediments on the 
737,000,000 ocean floor continue to release the greenhouse gas, methane. These 
736,000,000 greenhouse gases are trapped under the ice and cannot reach the 
735,000,000 atmosphere. Volcanoes sticking their heads above the ice continue
734,000,000 to emit carbon dioxide. Slowly, the level of carbon dioxide increases
733,000,000 and the earth begins to get warmer. After millions of years, there is
732,000,000 enough carbon dioxide to create a greenhouse effect. The ice begins to
731,000,000 melt. Cracks in the ice release the trapped methane and carbon dioxide. 
730,000,000 Rain not snow begins to fall. The earth is becoming a warm, wet place.
729,000,000 Earth is a hot and  wet. Increased rain removes carbon dioxide from the 
728,000,000 atmosphere. Cyanobacteria have recovered in the warm water and are 
727,000,000 producing more oxygen. Oxygen removes methane and rain removes 
726,000,000 carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The temperature on the earth’s 
725,000,000 surface begins to fall. Soon, ice begins to form in the ocean and the 
724,000,000 process of cooling and warming begins again. The cycle of extreme hot and 
723,000,000 cold is repeated at least three more times. 
722,000,000 
721,000,000 
720,000,000 Eukaryotes and cyanobacteria were thriving on Earth,
719,000,000 before and after the big chills. It has always been
718,000,000 mystery why it took so long for these primitive
717,000,000 organisms to diversify into the 11 animal body plans
716,000,000 The that show up suddenly during the Cambrian age.
715,000,000 Creatures that survived the glacial episodes may
714,000,000 have taken refuge at hot springs both on the sea floor
713,000,000 and under the ice. Many organisms respond with wholesale
712,000,000 genetic alterations under severe stress. Hot spring communities
711,000,000 widely separated on the icy surface of the planet would accumulate
710,000,000 genetic diversity over millions of years. Repopulations occurring
709,000,000 after each glaciation would favor the emergence of new life forms.
708,000,000
707,000,000
706,000,000
705,000,000
704,000,000
703,000,000
702,000,000
701,000,000 Stromatolites began to decline in abundance and diversity as herbivorous 
700,000,000 eukaryotes began feeding extensively on growing stromatolites.
699,000,000
698,000,000
697,000,000
696,000,000
695,000,000
694,000,000
693,000,000
692,000,000
691,000,000
690,000,000
689,000,000
688,000,000
687,000,000
686,000,000
685,000,000
684,000,000
683,000,000
682,000,000
681,000,000
680,000,000
679,000,000
678,000,000
677,000,000
676,000,000
675,000,000
674,000,000
673,000,000
672,000,000
671,000,000
670,000,000
669,000,000
668,000,000
667,000,000
666,000,000
665,000,000
664,000,000
663,000,000
662,000,000
661,000,000
660,000,000
659,000,000
658,000,000
657,000,000
656,000,000
655,000,000
654,000,000
653,000,000
652,000,000
651,000,000
650,000,000
649,000,000
648,000,000
647,000,000
646,000,000
645,000,000
644,000,000
643,000,000
642,000,000
641,000,000
640,000,000
639,000,000
638,000,000
637,000,000
636,000,000
635,000,000
634,000,000
633,000,000
632,000,000
631,000,000
630,000,000
629,000,000
628,000,000
627,000,000
626,000,000
625,000,000
624,000,000
623,000,000
622,000,000
621,000,000
620,000,000
619,000,000
618,000,000
617,000,000
616,000,000
615,000,000
614,000,000
613,000,000
612,000,000
611,000,000
610,000,000
609,000,000
608,000,000
607,000,000
606,000,000
605,000,000
604,000,000
603,000,000
602,000,000
601,000,000
600,000,000
599,000,000 Today, nearly a third of all the life on this planet consists
598,000,000 of microbes living under the sea floor in a dark world without
597,000,000 oxygen. They make vast quantities of methane.) Microbes (archaea)
596,000,000 living deep in the crust convert carbon into methane that
595,000,000 migrates to the surface. When the earth is covered in ice,
594,000,000 methane gas bubbling through sea floor sediments
593,000,000 is trapped under the ice sheet where the methane
592,000,000 forms methane ice.
591,000,000 This methane ice is stable under pressure and/or cold.
590,000,000 Methane is a hothouse gas 30 stronger than carbon dioxide.
589,000,000
588,000,000 The last cycle of extreme heating and cooling are ending.
587,000,000
586,000,000 Large ice sheets are unstable and crack, releasing the trapped
585,000,000 methane. As the methane builds, the earth becomes warmer, leading
584,000,000 to more instability and more methane being released. The earth
583,000,000 warms rapidly ending the last snowball earth. Continental drift
582,000,000 has placed large bodies of water near
581,000,000 the equator keeping the earth from freezing again. (Water absorbs
580,000,000 more heat than land.)
579,000,000
578,000,000 After three billion years of mostly single-celled evolution,
577,000,000 a prolonged stable environment permitted the emergence
576,000,000 of oxygen breathing life forms.
575,000,000 Poriferans, Cnidarians, Echinoderms, Chordates, Brachiopods,
574,000,000 Platyhelminths, Annelids, Mollusks, Priapulids, Nematodes,
573,000,000 and Arthopods are present. All require oxygen to live.
572,000,000
571,000,000 Paleozoic Era 570 to 240 mya
570,000,000 CAMBRIAN PERIOD 570-500 mya
569,000,000 The evolution of life, from primitive,
568,000,000 multicellular, free-floating forms in
567,000,000 the sea to advanced groups on land
566,000,000 can be traced by fossil remains
565,000,000 in rock strata of the Paleozoic
564,000,000 era.  The steadily increasing
563,000,000 oxygen content of the atmosphere
562,000,000 and oceans had made it possible
561,000,000 for the marine environment
560,000,000 to support new forms of
559,000,000 life that could derive energy
558,000,000 from respiration (oxygen). Although
557,000,000 life had not yet invaded
556,000,000 dry land or the air, the seas
555,000,000 of the Cambrian Period teemed
554,000,000 with a great variety of
553,000,000 marine invertebrates, including
552,000,000 sponges, worms, bryozoans
551,000,000 hydrozoas, brachiopods, mollusks,
550,000,000 primitive arthropods such as the
549,000,000 trilobite, and a few
548,000,000 species of stalked echinoderms.
547,000,000 The only plant life of the
546,000,000 time consisted of marine algae.6
545,000,000
544,000,000
543,000,000
542,000,000 There are 450 days per year and 19 ½ hours per day.
541,000,000
540,000,000
539,000,000
538,000,000
537,000,000
536,000,000
535,000,000
534,000,000
533,000,000
532,000,000
531,000,000
530,000,000
529,000,000
528,000,000
527,000,000
526,000,000
525,000,000
524,000,000
523,000,000
522,000,000
521,000,000
520,000,000
519,000,000
518,000,000
517,000,000
516,000,000
515,000,000
514,000,000
513,000,000
512,000,000
511,000,000
510,000,000 A soft-bodied slug-like animal left trails as it slimmed along on land for
509,000,000 short periods moving from pond to pond.
508,000,000
507,000,000
506,000,000
505,000,000
504,000,000
503,000,000
502,000,000 The large land mass East Gondwana and West Gondwana
501,000,000 combined to form Gondwana.
500,000,000 First vertebrates are fish
499,000,000 breathing oxygen through gills,
498,000,000 without jaws or true fins with
497,000,000 a brain housed in a skull. (2)
496,000,000
495,000,000
494,000,000
493,000,000
492,000,000
491,000,000
490,000,000
489,000,000
488,000,000
487,000,000
486,000,000
485,000,000
484,000,000
483,000,000
482,000,000
481,000,000
480,000,000 ORDOVICIAN PERIOD     
479,000,000  On land, a few forms of primitive life
478,000,000  may have appeared. Marine invertebrates
477,000,000  were still the predominant life forms
476,000,000
475,000,000
474,000,000
473,000,000
472,000,000
471,000,000
470,000,000
469,000,000
468,000,000
467,000,000
466,000,000
465,000,000
464,000,000
463,000,000
462,000,000
461,000,000
460,000,000
459,000,000
458,000,000
457,000,000
456,000,000
455,000,000
454,000,000
453,000,000
452,000,000
451,000,000 All known life is found in the seas and oceans.
450,000,000
449,000,000
448,000,000 Ordovician-Silurian extinction: glaciers formed as the
447,000,000 Supercontinent Gondwana drifted over the South Pole.
446,000,000 This glaciation caused a lowering of sea levels worldwide
445,000,000 as large amounts of water became tied up in ice sheets. The drop
444,000,000 in sea levels destroyed species habitat around the continental shelves.
443,000,000 The toll: 25 percent of marine families and 60 percent of marine species. 442,000,000
441,000,000
440,000,000
439,000,000
438,000,000
437,000,000
436,000,000
435,000,000 SILURIAN PERIOD
434,000,000 Rocks of Silurian age yield the earliest fossils of a group of extinct, 
433,000,000 primitive, leafless vascular plants called psilophytes. psilophytes are 
432,000,000 characterized by a horizontal stalk that grew beneath the ground and sent 
431,000,000 up short, vertical stems. The best known was Cooksonia, a small  plant (2 
430,000,000 to 3 cm) with a stem which was topped with small spheres in which spores 
429,000,000 were formed. It had no leaves, no flowers, no seeds, and grew in areas of 
428,000,000 high humidity. The first verified land animal was a one-centimeter long 
427,000,000 myriapod, a centipede like animal having segmented bodies, one pair of 
426,000,000 antennae, and at least nine pairs of legs.
425,000,000
424,000,000
423,000,000
422,000,000 First fish with jaws.
421,000,000
420,000,000
419,000,000
418,000,000
417,000,000
416,000,000
415,000,000 The subterranean nuclear reaction, that powers Earth's
414,000,000 magnetic field, continues to protect the earth from
413,000,000 solar radiation (wind) that would strip off our
412,000,000 atmosphere, and has done so for 4 billion years.
411,000,000 A sign of uranium fuel depletion at the core occurs
410,000,000 when there is a higher ratio of helium-3 to helium-4
409,000,000 being created in the fission products. The high helium ratio
408,000,000 is being observed today in fresh lava in Hawaii and Iceland.
407,000,000 This trend indicates the end of the georeactor's lifetime to
406,000,000 be approaching with less than a billion years left.
405,000,000 DEVONIAN PERIOD (impact 405 mya)
404,000,000
403,000,000 The ozone layer is thick enough to
402,000,000 provide protection on the earth's surface
401,000,000 from ultraviolet radiation
400,000,000 The first air-breathing arthropods, spiders
399,000,000 and mites; appeared on dry land. Plants were
398,000,000 very tiny and primitive, generally lacking
397,000,000 leafs and roots In the seas, coiled
396,000,000 shellfish called ammonoids
395,000,000 (distantly related to
394,000,000 modern squid) were the major
393,000,000 form of invertebrate life.
392,000,000 Devonian fish, considerably
391,000,000 evolved from the armor-plated
390,000,000 species of the preceding
389,000,000 Ordovician Period, now had
388,000,000 fins, scales, and jaws. One
387,000,000 group, the lobe-fins, developed
386,000,000 into the first air-breathing
385,000,000 vertebrates, the amphibians,
384,000,000 which invaded the land at
383,000,000 the end of the Devonian Period and
382,000,000 opened the stage for the advent of
381,000,000 the reptiles in the Carboniferous
380,000,000 Period that followed.
379,000,000
378,000,000
377,000,000
376,000,000
375,000,000
374,000,000
373,000,000
372,000,000
371,000,000
370,000,000  Early Ray- finned fish with bony rays to help support their fins. 
369,000,000
368,000,000
367,000,000 In swampy habitats filled with organic matter, choked with plants
366,000,000 and dense vegetation, evolved tetrapods.
365,000,000
364,000,000 Late Devonian extinction, about 364 million years ago and coming
363,000,000 in waves or cycles for the next 15 million years. At least 70 percent
362,000,000 of marine species went extinct during this time. The evolution of plants
361,000,000 and trees was a contributing factor to the anoxic conditions of the oceans.
360,000,000 After the plants die and decay nutrients were released and ultimately
359,000,000 washed through the freshwater system into the oceans.
358,000,000 Massive blooms of phytoplankton caused widespread oxygen deficiency
357,000,000 affecting shallow warm-water organisms rather than cool-water 
356,000,000 organisms.
355,000,000
354,000,000
353,000,000 The combined continents of Europe and Africa (Gondwana) collided
352,000,000 with North America beginning to form the supercontinent Pangaea.
351,000,000 The collision exerted enormous stress on what today is eastern
350,000,000 North America, and causing an enormous upward thrusting of the
349,000,000 entire region. The highest peaks of the Appalachian mountains
348,000,000 soared more than four miles into the sky.
347,000,000
346,000,000 Amphibians: first vertebrates with legs.
345,000,000 CARBONIFEROUS PERIOD
344,000,000  (impact 345 mya)
343,000,000
342,000,000
341,000,000
340,000,000
339,000,000
338,000,000
337,000,000
336,000,000
335,000,000
334,000,000
333,000,000
332,000,000
331,000,000
330,000,000
329,000,000
328,000,000
327,000,000
326,000,000
325,000,000
324,000,000
323,000,000
322,000,000
321,000,000
320,000,000 About 2000 species of plants are known, most of them
319,000,000 flowerless, spore-producing plants.
318,000,000 The first true reptiles appeared, developing from
317,000,000 earlier amphibians. Corals, crinoids, and minute
316,000,000 foraminifers were abundant, and there were a few
315,000,000 trilobites and eurypterids. Snails and mollusks,
314,000,000 including cephalopods and nautiloids, were widespread.
313,000,000 Insects were frequent, particularly a giant form of
312,000,000 dragonfly. Polyzoa and  brachiopods were common,
311,000,000 and sharks and primitive, hard-scaled fish were
310,000,000 well represented. 
309,000,000
308,000,000
307,000,000
306,000,000
305,000,000
304,000,000
303,000,000
302,000,000
301,000,000
300,000,000 Forest swamps were made up of plants which included tree-ferns
299,000,000 which grew to a height of 15 meters (50 feet), and "scale-trees"
298,000,000 which attained a height of about 30 meters (100 feet).
297,000,000 The first flying insects appeared during the Carboniferous period.
296,000,000 Giant dragonflies such as Meganeura, which had a wing span of 70
295,000,000 centimeters (28 inches). An oxygen rich atmosphere allowed for
294,000,000 the development of enormous insects. If more oxygen is available,
293,000,000 the blood may deliver the oxygen further in the body, supporting
292,000,000 larger body structures.
291,000,000
290,000,000 PERMIAN PERIOD  290-240 mya
289,000,000 The invertebrate marine life at the beginning of the period was
288,000,000 exceptionally rich, flourishing in the warm, shallow inland seas.
287,000,000
286,000,000
285,000,000
284,000,000
283,000,000
282,000,000
281,000,000
280,000,000 * impact
279,000,000 flying insects
278,000,000
277,000,000
276,000,000
275,000,000
274,000,000
273,000,000
272,000,000
271,000,000
270,000,000 Algae was plentiful.
269,000,000
268,000,000
267,000,000
266,000,000
265,000,000
264,000,000
263,000,000
262,000,000  Forerunners  of the dinosaurs appeared.                                                                 
261,000,000                                                                  
260,000,000  Massive volcanic eruption in  Emeishan province of south west
259,000,000   China released 1/2 million cubic kilometers of lava.
258,000,000 First seed plants, cone bearing trees appeared. Seed ferns
257,000,000 were joined by conifers and ginkgoes.                          
256,000,000 Two massive asteroids bigger than Mount Everest slammed into the
255,000,000 earth leaving a 125 mile crater off the north-west coast  of  what
254,000,000 is now Australia and a 300 mile  crater in East Antarctica
253,000,000  at Wilkes Land. The earth split open in Siberia creating a
252,000,000  lake of lava that pumped massive amounts of carbon
251,000,000 Permian-Triassic extinction, about 251 MYA.    
250,000,000 dioxide into the atmosphere warming the earth. The warmer ocean
249,000,000  interfered with the normal circulation process in
248,000,000 which colder  surface water descends, taking oxygen and nutrients
247,000,000 deep into the ocean. Ocean waters became stratified with little oxygen.
246,000,000 Higher temperatures contributed to the demise of land animals.              
245,000,000 Earth's worst mass extinction, killing 96 percent of the
244,000,000  life  in the sea, 70 percent of  land vertebrates and  over 50 percent    
243,000,000  of the insects. At this time there was one land mass and one ocean.
242,000,000 Australia and Siberia were part of the same land mass. An    
241,000,000 asteroid  may have triggered the volcanism in what is now Siberia.                
240,000,000 Mesozoic Era 240-65 mya                    
239,000,000 Traissic Period 240-205mya
238,000,000 Ancestors of angiosperms (Flowering plants) diverged.
237,000,000 Surviving reptiles, which had  appeared in the preceding period,  
236,000,000 were undergoing a spectacular evolutionary development.
235,000,000
234,000,000
233,000,000
232,000,000
231,000,000
230,000,000
229,000,000
228,000,000
227,000,000
226,000,000
225,000,000
224,000,000
223,000,000
222,000,000
221,000,000
220,000,000 Sauropod-like dinosaurs first appeared.
219,000,000 The general climate was  warm. Plant life was dominated by
218,000,000  evergreen trees, most of them conifers and ginkgoes.
217,000,000  The most important animals  to make their appearance in            
216,000,000  the Triassic were the dinosaurs. They were for the most        
215,000,000  part no more than 10 to 15 feet  long.6  Mammals were
214,000,000 evolving from mammal-like reptiles. Pangaea begins to break
213,000,000   apart into Laurasia  to the North and  Gondwanaland to the                    
212,000,000  South.                              
211,000,000                                
210,000,000                                
209,000,000
208,000,000                              
207,000,000 Triassic Jurassic extinction: roughly  200 million years ago. Half of the
206,000,000  species on earth including large plant-eating dinosaurs died while large
205,000,000   carnivores (dinosaurs) flourished. The extinction event most likely
204,000,000  was caused by  tectonic forces that caused  hundreds of volcanoes                    
203,000,000   around the world to erupt simultaneously and plunged the
202,000,000 world into darkness for years. The volcanism may have led to
201,000,000   deadly global warming. Rocks from the from eruptions are
200,000,000   found in the eastern United States, eastern Brazil, North Africa and            
199,000,000  Spain.  The death toll:  half of   the species on Earth; including the
198,000,000 mammal-like reptiles that once roamed the Earth. Small mammals
197,000,000 survived.
196,000,000          Toarcian extinction, 183,000,000 years ago. Palm trees grew and
195,000,000           reptiles roamed in the area how occupied  by northern Canada. The
194,000,000           ice-free Arctic Ocean was warm (lower 80s°F) Steaming rain forests,
193,000,000           heavy daily rains and violent storms. Heavy erosion, which in turn fed
192,000,000           more nutrients into the worlds waters. An explosion of life was 
191,000,000           spurred on by the increased nutrients which led to there own demise 
190,000,000           buy killing themselves in there own waste products. The high 
189,000,000           temperatures dried the earth's soil faster than the rain could replace 
188,000,000           it. Massive forest fires occurred creating more carbon dioxide and 
187,000,000            warming. With no ice at the poles, there was no cold water sinking to 
186,000,000            the bottom of the ocean and the oceans currents stopped. The 
185,000,000           oceans became stagnant. Life in the sea died and sank to the bottom 
184,000,000           of the ocean and where there was nothing to consume it.
83,000,000 *Toarcian extinction*   (This event lasted 1 million years.)
182,000,000          All this un-consumed material sank              
181,000,000          to the bottom forming sludge and with time oil and coal.
180,000,000 JURASSIC PERIOD
179,000,000 The Jurassic climate was warm and moist, temperate
178,000,000 and had subtropical forests consisting largely of the
177,000,000 gymnosperms (cycads and conifers), ginkgoes, and
176,000,000 seed ferns. Angiosperms (flowering plants) first appeared.
175,000,000 In the mid-Jurassic Period, Reptiles were the dominant
174,000,000 form of animal life. They had adapted to life in the sea
173,000,000 (ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs), in the air (pterosaurs),
172,000,000 and on the land, where  some reached huge sizes. 6
171,000,000
170,000,000 Sauropods are present and  will evolve into  the largest
169,000,000 animals to ever walk the earth.
168,000,000
167,000,000
166,000,000
165,000,000  In the asteroid belt, a massive 105 mile wide asteroid was hit by a 37 mile
164,000,000  wide asteroid, smashing the two  into many thousands of pieces. 2% of 
163,000,000  the debris circle the sun in an earth crossing orbit. Some very large pieces
162,000,000  strike the earth 95 million years after the initial collision. One strikes the
161,000,000 Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, 65 mya and the other strikes the coast of India. 
160,000,000 
159,000,000  Some dinosaurs evolved into birds— "Anchiornis Huxleyi"                   
158,000,000                                                           
157,000,000                                                        
156,000,000                                                        
155,000,000                                                        
154,000,000
153,000,000
152,000,000
151,000,000
150,000,000
149,000,000
148,000,000
147,000,000
146,000,000
145,000,000
144,000,000
143,000,000
142,000,000
141,000,000
140,000,000 Early birds with teeth and a long bony tail. (2)
139,000,000
138,000,000  Cretaceous Period 138-65 mya
137,000,000 (Creta is Latin for chalk.
136,000,000 Vast thickness of chalk were laid
135,000,000 down at the end of this period.)                                
134,000,000                                  
132,000,000                                  
131,000,000                                  
130,000,000                                  
129,000,000
128,000,000
127,000,000 Earliest known flowering plant. (Archaefructus liaoningensis)
126,000,000 Various species of grass are present.
125,000,000 India became geographically isolated from other continents
124,000,000
123,000,000
122,000,000
121,000,000
120,000,000
119,000,000
118,000,000
117,000,000
116,000,000
115,000,000
114,000,000
113,000,000
112,000,000
111,000,000
110,000,000 Sauropod dinosaurs have evolved into the
109,000,000 largest animals ever to walk the earth.
108,000,000
107,000,000
106,000,000
105,000,000
104,000,000
103,000,000
102,000,000
101,000,000
100,000,000 Flowering plants common (3)
99,000,000
98,000,000  Sea levels rose worldwide,submerging about one-third of
97,000,000  the earth's present land area.  This allowed heat from the sun to
96,000,000  be distributed farther poleward by ocean currents, producing
95,000,000  warm, ice-free Arctic water, a mild global climate with
94,000,000  temperatures of 14° C (58° F) or higher.
93,000,000 Under the ocean, volcanic activity striped the oceans of oxygen,
92,000,000 triggering a mass extinction of marine life.
91,000,000    
90,000,000
89,000,000  On land, cold-blooded reptiles could
88,000,000  exist even in northern latitudes. The
87,000,000  flora had taken on a modern appearance of
86,000,000  trees such as the oak, beech, and maple.6
85,000,000
84,000,000
83,000,000
82,000,000                                                  Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and
81,000,000                                                  Neptune give off more energy
80,000,000                                                  than they receive from the sun
79,000,000                                                  and may have subterranean
78,000,000                                                  nuclear reactions going in      
77,000,000                                                  their core.
76,000,000 Rocks, two larger and heavier than Mt. Everest, hurdle toward earth.
75,000,000 One, 15 km across, strikes the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; causing
74,000,000 dust to block sunlight, cooling the planet (2) causing world wide
73,000,000 devastation and creating stress on every living thing 65 mya.
72,000,000 Then 300,000 years later, a larger asteroid (40 km across) strikes
71,000,000 off the West coast of India intensifying massive volcanic eruptions
70,000,000 in the Deccan Traps, changing the climate and killing the dinosaurs.
69,000,000 This volcanism released prodigious amounts of the green house gas
68,000,000 carbon dioxide, causing climatic warming, melting of polar ice, sea
67,000,000 level rise, elevated body temperatures and plant and animal migrations,
66,000,000 acidification of the ocean along with death on a massive scale.
65,000,000 There were at least six asteroid impacts. 
64,000,000 Impacts caused the Chicxulub crater in Mexico, Shiva
63,000,000 crater in India, the Boltysh crater in The Ukraine,
62,000,000 Silverpit crater in the North Sea, the Eagle Butte
61,000,000 crater in Canada, and the Vista Alegre crater in Brazil.
60,000,000 Boa snakes over grew over 40 feet.
59,000,000 first primates
58,000,000 Asteroid's impact created a 1 mile deep crater 60 miles SE of
57,000,000 Waco, Texas. Many stony-iron and achondritic meteorites
56,000,000 survive today in Earth-crossing orbits.
55,000,000 -Eocene- Hot house earth. North pole 74 degrees.
54,000,000 Australia and Antarctica  are connected. Warm equatorial
53,000,000 currents mixed with colder Antarctic waters distributing the heat  
52,000,000 around the planet keeping global temperatures high.
51,000,000
50,000,000 bats
49,000,000
48,000,000
47,000,000
46,000,000
45,000,000 Australia split from Antarctica and the warm  equatorial
44,000,000 currents circled Australia, isolating the cold water in the Antarctic.
43,000,000 Antarctica began to cool.
42,000,000
41,000,000
40,000,000 Whales
39,000,000
38,000,000 -Oligocene-
37,000,000 A shower of comets impact in northern Italy, Siberia and Chesapeake Bay.
36,000,000  Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have been slowly falling and are now
35,000,000 about 400 parts per million. Earth warmer than today. Trees and grass
34,000,000 cover Greenland. Ice sheets first started to grow on Greenland as
33,000,000 carbon dioxide levels declined and ice has been there ever since. 
32,000,000 Pre-industrial atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will continue to drop until 
31,000,000 about 1850 with 280 parts per million of carbon dioxide. By the year 2007, 
30,000,000 mans industrial activities will have caused carbon dioxide levels to rise to 
29,000,000 380 parts per million. 
28,000,000 Early primates developing a repertoire of sounds that have specific 
27,000,000 functions such as alerting to the presence of predators or emotional states.
26,000,000 La Garita Caldera, Colorado, erupted 1200 cubic miles of ash.
25,000,000
24,000,000
23,000,000
22,000,000
21,000,000
20,000,000
19,000,000
18,000,000
17,000,000
16,000,000
15,000,000
14,000,000
13,000,000 * impact
12,000,000
11,000,000
10,000,000 * Modern carnivores
9,000,000
8,000,000
7,000,000 -Pleistocene-
6,000,000      
5,000,000
4,000,000 Humans and chimps diverged (Ardipithecus)          
3,000,000 Lucy: bipedal, small brain, long arms, short legs.      
2,000,000 Early man (stone tools)
1,000,000
0         All of human's written history has occurred
           in the most recent 10,000 years, or 1% of
           the time in this last million year increment.


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This article presents the complex ideas of many different people, if you have an issue with any of them or wish to make a comment or suggestion, please write to: troys_email@yahoo.com
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Notes of interest
Tardigrades (water-dwelling, segmented animals with eight legs) were taken into low Earth orbit on the FOTON-M3 mission and for 10 days were exposed to the vacuum of space.   After they were returned to Earth, it was discovered that many of them survived and laid eggs that hatched normally, making these the only animals shown to be able to survive the vacuum of space.

A comet or asteroid exploded above Michigan some 13,000 years ago, causing temperatures to plunge for the next 1000 years. The American Clovis culture disappears and large mammals, including  woolly mammoths, American lions, and the saber tooth tiger became extinct.

Researchers revived bacterial spores found in the belly of a bee frozen in amber some 25 million years ago.

Glaciologist Lonnie Thompson believes that 5,200 years ago, solar output first dropped precipitously and then surged over a short period causing extreme climatic disruption.

1908: A twenty foot in diameter asteroid explodes over Tunguska, Russia. Devastating more than 800 square miles and flattening an estimated 80 million trees.

Three unknown species of bacteria found in the earth's upper stratosphere raise the prospect of life in space.

Bacteria can survive a hypervelocity impact and subsequently grow.

Current estimates of methane hydrates are on the order of 1 to 2 million trillion cubic feet.

Silicon and oxygen, make up 70% of the earth's crust.
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